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Captain James Cook - Voyages

CHAPTER VI.

Narrative of Captain Cook's Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, to the Period of his Death.

Every preparation for the voyage being completed, Captain Cook received an order to proceed to Plymouth, and to take the Discovery under his command. Having, accordingly, given the proper directions to Captain Clerke, he sailed from the Nore to the Downs, on the 25th of June. On the 30th of the same month, he anchored in Plymouth Sound, where the Discovery was already arrived. It was the 8th day of July before our commander received his instructions for the voyage; and at the same time, he was ordered to proceed with the Resolution, to the Cape of Good Hope. Captain Clerke, who was detained in London, by some unavoidable circumstances, was to follow as soon as he should join his ship.

In the evening of the 12th, Captain Cook stood out of Plymouth Sound, and pursued his course down the Channel. It was very early that he began his judicious operations for preserving the health of his crew: for, on the 17th, the ship was smoked between the decks with gunpowder, and the spare sails were well aired. On the 30th, the moon being totally eclipsed, the captain observed it with a night telescope. He had not, on this occasion, an opportunity of making many observations. The reason was, that the moon was hidden behind the clouds the greater part of the time; and this was particularly the case, when the beginning and the end of total darkness, and the end of the eclipse, happened.

It being found, that there was not hay and corn sufficient for the subsistence of the stock of animals on board, till the arrival of our people at the Cape of Good Hope, Captain Cook determined to touch at Teneriffe. This island he thought better adapted to the purposes of procuring these articles, and other refreshments, than Madeira. On the 1st of August, he anchored in the road of Santa Cruz, and immediately dispatched an officer to the governor, who, with the utmost politeness, granted everything which our commander requested.

Were a judgment to be formed from the appearance of the country in the neighbourhood of Santa Cruz, it might be concluded that Teneriffe is so barren a spot, as to be insufficient for the maintenance even of its own inhabitants. It was proved, however, by the ample supplies which our navigators received, that the islanders had enough to spare for visitors. The necessary articles of refreshment were procured at such moderate prices, as to confirm Captain Cook in his opinion, that Teneriffe is a more eligible place than Madeira, for ships to touch at, which are bound on long voyages. Indeed, the wine of the latter island is far superior to that of the former; but then it can only be purchased by a sum of money proportionably larger.

During the short stay which the captain made at Teneriffe, he continued with great assiduity his astronomical observations; and Mr. Anderson has not a little contributed to the farther knowledge of the country, by his remarks on its general state, its natural appearances, its productions, and its inhabitants. He learned, from a sensible and well informed gentleman, who resided in the island, that a shrub is common there, which agrees exactly with the description given by Tournefort and Linnaeus, of the _tea shrub_, as growing in China and Japan. It is reckoned a weed, and every year is rooted out in large quantities from the vineyards. The Spaniards, however, sometimes use it as tea, and ascribe to it all the qualities of that which is imported from China. They give it also the name of tea, and say that it was found in the country when the islands were first discovered. Another botanical curiosity is called the _impregnated lemon_; which is a perfect and distinct lemon enclosed within another, and differing from the outer one only in being a little more globular.

The air and climate of Teneriffe are, in general, remarkably healthful, and particularly adapted to give relief in pulmonary complaints. This the gentleman before mentioned endeavoured to account for, from its being always in a person's power to procure a different temperature of the air, by residing at different heights in the island. He expressed, therefore, his surprise that the physicians of England should never have thought of sending their consumptive patients to Teneriffe, instead of Nice or Lisbon.

Although it is not understood that there is any great similarity between the manners of the English and those of the Spaniards, it was observable, that the difference between them was very little perceived by Omai. He only said, that the Spaniards did not appear to be so friendly as the English; and that, in their persons, they approached to some resemblance of his own countrymen.

On the 4th, Captain Cook sailed from Teneriffe, and proceeded on his voyage. Such was his attention, both to the discipline and the health of his company, that twice in the space of five days, he exercised them at great guns and small arms, and cleared and smoked the ship below decks. On the evening of the 10th, when the Resolution was at a small distance from the island of Bonavista, she ran so close upon a number of sunken rocks, that she did but just weather the breakers. The situation of our voyagers, for a few minutes, was very alarming. In this situation the captain, with the intrepid coolness which distinguished his character, did not choose to sound, as that, without any possibility of lessening, might have heightened the danger.

While our commander was near the Cape de Verde Islands, he had an opportunity of correcting an assertion of Mr. Nicholson with regard to the manner of sailing by those islands, which, if implicitly trusted to, might prove of dangerous consequence. On the 13th, our navigators arrived before Port Praya, in the Island of St. Jago; but as the Discovery was not there, and little water had been expended in the passage from Teneriffe, Captain Cook did not think proper to go in; but stood to the southward.

In the course of the voyage, between the latitudes of 12░ and 7░ north, the weather was generally dark and gloomy. The rains were frequent, and accompanied with that close and sultry weather, which too often brings on sickness in this passage. At such a time, the worst consequences are to be apprehended: and commanders of ships cannot be too much upon their guard. It is necessary for them to purify the air between decks with fire and smoke, and to oblige their people to dry their clothes at every opportunity. The constant observance of these precautions on board the Resolution was attended with such success, that the captain had now fewer sick men than on either of his former voyages. This was the more remarkable, as, in consequence of the seams of the vessel having opened so wide, as to admit the rain when it fell, there was scarcely a man who could lie dry in his bed; and the officers in the gun-room were all driven out of their cabins by the water that came through the sides. When settled weather returned, the caulkers were employed in repairing these defects, by caulking the decks and inside weather-works of the ship; for the humanity of our commander would not trust the workmen over the sides, while the Resolution was at sea.

On the 1st of September, our navigators crossed the equator. While, on the 8th, Captain Cook was near the eastern coast of Brazil, he was at considerable pains to settle its longitude, which, till some better astronomical observations are made on shore in that country, he concluded to be thirty-five degrees and a half, or thirty-six degrees west, at most.

As our people proceeded on their voyage, they frequently saw, in the night, those luminous marine animals, which have formerly been mentioned and described. Some of them appeared to be considerably larger than any which the captain had met with before; and sometimes they were so numerous, that hundreds of them were visible at the same moment.

On the 18th of October, the Resolution came to an anchor in Table Bay, at the Cape of Good Hope; and the usual compliments having been paid to Baron Plettenberg the governor, Captain Cook immediately applied himself to his customary operations. Nothing remarkable occurred till the evening of the 31st, when a tempest arose from the south-east, which lasted three days, and which was so violent that the Resolution was the only ship in the bay that rode out the gale without dragging her anchors. The effects of the storm were sensibly felt by our people on shore; for their tents and observatory were torn to pieces, and their astronomical quadrant narrowly escaped irreparable damage. On the 3rd of November, the tempest ceased, and the next day the English were enabled to resume their different employments.

It was not till the 10th of the month, that Captain Cook had the satisfaction of seeing the Discovery arrive in the bay, and effect her junction with the Resolution. She had sailed from England on the 1st of August, and would have reached the Cape of Good Hope a week sooner, if she had not been driven from the coast by the late storm. Every assistance was immediately given to put her into a proper condition for proceeding on the voyage.

While the necessary preparations for the future navigation was completing, a disaster happened with regard to the cattle which had been carried out in the Resolution. They had been conveyed on shore for the purpose of grazing. The bull, and two cows, with their calves, had been sent to graze along with some other cattle: but Captain Cook was advised to keep the sheep, which were sixteen in number, close to the tents, where they were penned up every evening. During the night preceding the 14th, some dogs having gotten in among them, forced them out of the pen, killed four, and dispersed the rest. Six of them were recovered the next day; but the two rams and two of the finest ewes in the whole flock, were amongst those which were missing. Baron Plettenberg being at this time in the country, our commander applied to Mr. Hemmy, the lieutenant-governor, and to the fiscal, for redress; and both these gentlemen promised to use their endeavours for the recovery of the lost sheep. It is the boast of the Dutch, that the police at the Cape is so carefully executed, that it is scarcely possible for a slave, with all his cunning and knowledge of the country, to effectuate his escape. Nevertheless, Captain Cook's sheep evaded all the vigilance of the fiscal's officers and people. At length, after much trouble and expense, by employing some of the meanest and lowest scoundrels in the place, he recovered all but the two ewes, of which he never could hear the least tidings. The character given of the fellows to whom the captain was obliged to have recourse, by the person who recommended their being applied to, was, that for a ducatoon they would cut their master's throat, burn the house over his head, and bury him and the whole family in the ashes.

During the stay of our voyagers at the Cape, some of the officers, accompanied by Mr. Anderson, made a short excursion into the neighbouring country. This gentleman, as usual, was very diligent in recording every thing which appeared to him worthy of observation. His remarks, however, in the present case, will be deemed of little consequence, compared with the full, accurate, and curious account of the Cape of Good Hope, with which Dr. Sparrman hath lately favoured the literary world.

With respect to Captain Cook, besides the unavoidable care which lay upon him, in providing his ships with whatever was requisite for the commodious and successful prosecution of the voyage, his attention was eminently directed to scientific objects. He was anxious to ascertain the currents, the variations of the compass, and the latitude and longitude of the places to which he came. The observations which he collected, and recorded in his journal, while he was at the Cape of Good Hope, will be esteemed of the greatest importance by judicious navigators.

After the disaster which had happened to the sheep, it may well be supposed that our commander did not long trust on shore those which remained. Accordingly, he gave orders to have them, and the other cattle, conveyed on board as fast as possible. He made an addition, also, to the original stock, by the purchase of two young bulls, two heifers, two young stallions, two mares, two rams, several ewes and goats, and some rabbits and poultry. All these animals were intended for New Zealand. Otaheite, and the neighbouring islands; and, indeed, for any other places in the course of the voyage, where the leaving of any of them might be of service to posterity.

In the supplies which were provided at the Cape, Captain Cook paid a particular regard to the nature and extent of his undertaking. As it was impossible to tell when or where he might meet with a place, which could so amply contribute to his necessities, he thought proper to lay in such a store of provisions for both ships, as would be sufficient to last them for two years and upwards.

Our commander having given a copy of his instructions to Captain Clerke, and an order directing him how to proceed in case of a separation, weighed from Table Bay on the 30th of November, though it was not till the 3rd of December that he got clear of the land. On the 6th the ships passed through several spots of water, nearly of a red colour. When some of this was taken up, it was found to contain a large quantity of small animals, of a reddish hue, and which the microscope discovered to resemble a cray-fish. As our navigators pursued their course to the south-east, a very strong gale, which they had from the westward, was followed by a mountainous sea, in consequence of which the Resolution rolled and tumbled so much, that the cattle on board were preserved with the utmost difficulty. Soon after, several of the goats, especially the males, together with some sheep, died, notwithstanding, all the care to prevent it, that was exercised by our people. This misfortune was chiefly owing to the coldness of the weather, which now began to be felt in the most sensible manner.

On the 12th, land was seen, which, upon a nearer approach, was found to consist of two islands. That which lies most to the south, and is the largest, was judged by Captain Cook to be about fifteen leagues in circuit. The northerly one is about nine leagues in circuit; and the two islands are at the distance of five leagues from each other. As the ships passed through the channel between them, our voyagers could not discover with the assistance of their best glasses, either tree or shrub on either of them. They seemed to have a rocky and bold shore, and their surface is for the most part composed of barren mountains, the summits and sides of which were covered with snow. These two islands, together with four others which lie from nine to twelve degrees of longitude more to the east, and nearly in the same latitude, had been discovered by Captains Marion du Fresne and Crozet, French navigators, in January, 1772, on their passage, in two ships from the Cape of Good Hope to the Philippine Islands. As no names had been assigned to them in a chart of the Southern Ocean, which Captain Crozet communicated to Captain Cook in 1775, our commander distinguished the two larger ones by calling them Prince Edward's Islands, after his majesty's fourth son. To the other four, with a view of commemorating the discoverers, he gave the name of Marion's and Crozet's Islands.

Though it was now the middle of summer in this hemisphere, the weather was not less severe than what is generally met with in England in the very depth of winter. Instead however, of being discouraged by this circumstance, the captain shaped his course in such a manner, as to pass to the southward of Marion's and Crozet's Islands, that he might get into the latitude of land which had been discovered by M. de Kerguelen, another French navigator. It was part of our commander's instructions to examine whether a good harbour might not here be found.

As our voyagers, on the 24th, were steering to the eastward, a fog clearing up a little, which had involved them for some time, and which had rendered their navigation both tedious and dangerous, land was seen, bearing south-south-east. Upon a nearer approach, it was found to be an island of considerable height, and about three leagues in circuit. Another island, of the same magnitude, was soon after discovered, and in a short space a third, besides some smaller ones. At times, as the fog broke away, there was the appearance of land over the small islands, and Captain Cook entertained thoughts of steering for it, by running in between them. But, on drawing nearer, he found that, so long as the weather continued foggy this would be a perilous attempt. For if there should be no passage, or if our people should meet with any sudden danger, there was such a prodigious sea, breaking on all the shores in a frightful surf, that it would have been impossible for the vessels to be gotten off. At the same time, the captain saw another island; and as he did not know how many more might succeed, he judged it prudent, in order to avoid getting entangled among unknown lands in a thick fog, to wait for clearer weather.

The island last mentioned is a high round rock, which was named Bligh's Cap. Our commander had received some very slight information concerning it at Teneriffe, and his sagacity in tracing it was such, as immediately led him to determine, that it was the same that M. de Kerguelen had called the Isle of Rendezvous. His reason for giving it that name is not very apparent; for nothing can rendezvous upon it but fowls of the air, it being certainly inaccessible to every other animal. The weather beginning to clear up, Captain Cook steered in for the land, of which a faint view had been obtained in the morning. This was Kerguelen's land. No sooner had our navigators gotten off Cape Franšois, then they observed the coast to the southward, to be much indented by projecting points and bays; from which circumstance they were sure of finding a good harbour. Accordingly, such a harbour was speedily discovered, in which the ships came to an anchor on the 25th, being Christmas-day. Upon landing, our commander found the shore almost entirely covered with penguins and other birds, and with seals. The latter, which were not numerous, having been unaccustomed to visitors, were so insensible of fear, that as many as were wanted for the purpose of making use of their fat or blubber, were killed without difficulty. Fresh water was so plentiful, that every gully afforded a large stream; but not a single tree or shrub, or the least sign of it, could be met with, and but very little herbage of any sort. Before Captain Cook returned to his ship, he ascended the first ridge of rocks, that rise in a kind of amphitheatre, above one another, in hopes of obtaining a view of the country; in which, however, he was disappointed: for, previously to his reaching the top, there came on so thick a fog, that he could scarcely find his way down again. In the evening, the seine was hauled at the head of the harbour, but only half a dozen small fish were caught. As no better success attended a trial which was made the next day with hook and line, the only resource for fresh provision was in birds, the store of which was inexhaustible.

The people having wrought hard for two days, and nearly completed their water the captain allowed them the 27th, as a day of rest, to celebrate Christmas. Many of them, in consequence of this indulgence, went on shore, and made excursions, in different directions, into the country which they found barren and desolate in the highest degree. One of them in his ramble, discovered, and brought to our commander, in the evening, a quart bottle, fastened with some wire to a projecting rock on the north side of the harbour. This bottle contained a piece of parchment, on which was written the following inscription:

_Ludovico XV. Galliarum
rege et d. de Boynes
regi a Secretis ad Res
maritimas annis 1772 et
1773._

It was clear, from this inscription, that our English navigators were not the first who had been in the place. As a memorial of our people's having touched at the same harbour, Captain Cook wrote, as follows, on the other side of the parchment:

_Naves Resolution
et Discovery
de Rege Magnae Britanniae,
Decembris, 1776._

He then put it again into the bottle, together with a silver twopenny piece of 1772. Having covered the mouth of the bottle with a leaden cap, he placed it, the next morning in a pile of stones, erected for the purpose, upon a little eminence on the north shore of the harbour, and near to the place where it was first found. In this position it cannot escape the notice of any European, whom accident or design may bring into the port. Here the captain displayed the British flag, and named the place Christmas Harbour, from our voyagers having arrived in it on that festival.

After our commander had finished the business of the inscription, he went in his boat round the harbour, to examine what the shore afforded. His more particular object was to look for drift-wood; but he did not find a single piece throughout the whole extent of the place. On the same day, accompanied by Mr. King, his second lieutenant, he went upon Cape Franšois, with the hope, that, from this elevation, he might obtain a view of the sea-coast, and of the adjoining islands. But when he had gotten up, he found, that every distant object below him was obscured in a thick fog. The land on the same plain, or of a greater height, was sufficiently visible, and appeared naked and desolate in the highest degree; some hills to the southward excepted, which were covered with snow.

On the 29th, Captain Cook departed from Christmas Harbour, and proceeded to range along the coast, with a view of discovering its position and extent. In pursuing his course he met with several promontories and bays, together with a peninsula, all of which he has described and named, chiefly in honour of his various friends. Such was the danger of the navigation, that the ships had more than once a very narrow escape. On the same day, another harbour was discovered, in which the vessels came to an anchor for one night. Here the captain, Mr. Gore, and Mr. Bayley went on shore to examine the country, which they found, if possible, more barren and desolate than the land that lies about Christmas Harbour: and yet, if the least fertility were any where to be expected, it ought to have existed in this place, which is completely sheltered from the bleak and predominating southerly and westerly winds. Our commander observed, with regret, that there was neither food nor covering for cattle of any sort; and that, if he left any, they must inevitably perish. Finding no encouragement to continue his researches, he weighed anchor and put to sea on the 30th, having given to the harbour the name of Port Palliser. On the same day, he came to a point, which proved to be the very eastern extremity of Kerguelen's Land. In a large bay, near this point, there was a prodigious quantity of sea-weed, some of which is of a most extraordinary length. It seemed to be the same kind of vegetable production that Sir Joseph Banks had formerly distinguished by the appellation of _fucus giganteus_. Although the stem is not much thicker than a man's hand, Captain Cook thought himself well warranted to say, that part of it grows to the length of sixty fathoms and upward.

The result of the examination of Kerguelen's Land was, that the quantity of latitude which it occupies doth not much exceed one degree and a quarter. Its extent, from east to west, still remains undecided. At its first discovery, it was probably supposed to belong to a southern continent; but, in fact, it is an island, and that of no great extent. If our commander had not been unwilling to deprive M. Kerguelen of the honour of its bearing his name, he would have been disposed, from its sterility, to call it the Island of Desolation.

It should here be mentioned, that M. de Kerguelen made two visits to the coast of this country; one in 1772 and another in 1773. With the first of these voyages Captain Cook had only a very slight acquaintance; and to the second he was totally a stranger; so that he scarcely had any opportunity of comparing his own discoveries with those of the French navigator. M. de Kerguelen was peculiarly unfortunate, in having done but little to complete what he had begun; for though he discovered a new land, he could not, in two expeditions to it, once bring his ships to an anchor upon any part of its coasts. Captain Cook had either fewer difficulties to struggle with, or was more successful in surmounting them.

During the short time in which our voyagers lay in Christmas Harbour, Mr. Anderson lost no opportunity of searching the country in every direction. Perhaps no place, hitherto discovered, under the same parellel of latitude, affords so scanty a field for a natural historian. All that could be known in the space of time allotted him, and probably all that will ever be worthy to be known, was collected by this gentleman. A verdure, which had been seen at a little distance from the shore, gave our people the flattering expectation of meeting with a variety of herbage: but in this they were greatly deceived. On landing, it was perceived, that the lively colour which had imposed upon them, was occasioned only by one small plant, not unlike some sorts of _saxifrage_. It grows in large spreading tufts a considerable way up the hills. The whole catalogue of plants does not exceed sixteen or eighteen, including several kinds of moss, and a beautiful species of lichen, which rises higher up from the rocks than the rest of the vegetable productions. There is not the appearance of a shrub in the whole country. Nature has been somewhat more bountiful in furnishing it with animals; though, strictly speaking, they are not inhabitants of the place, being all of the marine kind. In general, the land is only used by them for breeding, and as a resting place. Of these animals the most considerable are seals; being of that sort which is called the ursine seal. The birds, which have already been mentioned as very numerous, chiefly consist of penguins, ducks, petrels, albatrosses, shags, gulls, and sea swallows. Penguins, which are far superior in number to the rest are of three kinds, one of which had never been seen by any of our voyagers before. The rocks, or foundations of the hills are principally composed of that dark blue and very hard stone, which seems to be one of the most universal productions of nature. Nothing was discovered that had the least appearance of ore or metal.

From this desolate coast Captain Cook took his departure on the 31st, intending, agreeably to his instructions, to touch next at New Zealand; that he might obtain a recruit of water, take in wood, and make hay for the cattle. Their number was now considerably diminished; for two young bulls, one of the heifers, two rams, and several of the goats, had died while our navigators where employed in exploring Kerguelen's Land. For some time they had fresh gales, and tolerably clear weather. But on the 3rd of January, 1777, the wind veered to the north, where it continued eight days, and was attended with so thick a fog, that the ships ran above three hundred leagues in the dark. Occasionally the weather would clear up, and give our people a sight of the sun; but this happened very seldom, and was always of short continuance. However, amidst all the darkness produced by the fog, the vessels, though they seldom saw each other, were so fortunate, in consequence of frequently firing guns as signals, that they did not lose company. On the 12th, the northerly winds ended in a calm. This was succeeded, in a little time, by a wind from the southward, which brought on a rain that continued for twenty-four hours. At the end of the rain, the wind freshened, and veering to the west and north-west, was followed by fair and clear weather.

Nothing very remarkable occurred to our voyagers till the 24th, when they discovered the coast of Van Dieman's Land; and, on the 26th, the ships came to an anchor in Adventure Bay. Captain Cook, as soon as he had anchored, ordered the boats to be hoisted out; in one of which he went himself, to look for the most commodious place for obtaining the necessary supplies. Wood and water were found in abundance, and in places sufficiently convenient; but grass, which was most wanted, was scarce, and, at the same time, very coarse. Necessity, however, obliged our people to take up with such as could be procured.

On the 28th, the English who were employed in cutting wood, were agreeably surprised with a visit from some of the natives. They consisted of eight men and a boy, who approached our voyagers not only without fear, but with the most perfect confidence and freedom. There was only a single person among them who had any thing which bore the least appearance of a weapon, and that was no more than a stick about two feet long, and pointed at one end. These people were quite naked, and wore no kind of ornaments; unless some large punctures, or ridges, raised in different parts of their bodies, either in straight or curved lines, may be considered in that light. Most of them had their hair and beards smeared with a red ointment: and the faces of some of them were painted with the same composition. Every present which Captain Cook made them they received without the least appearance of satisfaction. Of bread and elephant fish, which were offered them, they refused to taste, but shewed that they were fond of birds, as an article of food. Two pigs, which the captain had brought on shore, having come within their reach, they seized them by the ears, as a dog would have done, and would have carried them off immediately, apparently with no other intention than to kill them. Our commander being desirous of knowing the use of the stick which one of the Indians had in his hands, he signified, by signs, his wishes to that purpose. His intimations so far succeeded, that one of them set up a piece of wood as a mark, and threw at it at the distance of about twenty yards. There was but little reason to commend his dexterity; for, after repeated trials, he was still very wide from his object. Omai, to convince the natives how much our weapons were superior to theirs, then fired his musket at the mark by which they were so greatly terrified, that, notwithstanding all the endeavours of the English to quiet their minds, they ran instantly into the woods.

After the retreat of the Indians, Captain Cook, judging that their fears would prevent their remaining near enough to observe what passed, ordered the two pigs, being a boar and sow, to be carried about a mile within the head of the bay, and saw them left there, by the side of a fresh water brook. It was, at first, his benevolent intention to make an additional present to Van Dieman's Land, of a young bull and cow, together with some sheep and goats. But, upon reflection, he laid aside this design; being persuaded that the natives would destroy them, from, their incapacity of entering into his views with regard to the improvement of their country. As pigs are animals which soon become wild, and are fond of the thickest cover of the woods, there was the greater probability of their being preserved. For the accommodation of the other cattle, an open place must have been chosen; in which situation they could not possibly have been concealed many days.

On the 29th, about twenty of the inhabitants, men and boys, joined Captain Cook and such of his people as had landed with him, without manifesting the least sign of fear or distrust. It was remarkable, that one of the Indians was conspicuously deformed; nor was he more distinguished by the hump upon his back, than by the drollery of his gestures, and the humour of his speeches, which had the appearance of being intended for the entertainment of our voyagers. Unfortunately, the language in which he spake to them was wholly unintelligible. To each of the present group the captain gave a string of beads and a medal, which they seemed to receive with some satisfaction. On iron, and iron tools, they appeared to set no value. There was reason to believe, that they were even ignorant of fish-hooks; and yet it is difficult to suppose, that a people who inhabit a sea-coast, and who were not observed to derive any part of their sustenance from the productions of the ground, should be unacquainted with some mode of catching fish. However, they were never seen to be thus employed; nor was any canoe or vessel discovered by which they could go upon the water. Though they had rejected the kind of fish which had been offered them, it was evident that shell fish made a part of their food.

After Captain Cook had left the shore, several women and children made their appearance, and were introduced to Lieutenant King by some of the men that attended them. These females (a kanguroo skin excepted, which was tied over their shoulders, and seemed to be intended to support their infants) were as naked and as black as the men, and had their bodies marked with scars in the same manner. Many of the children had fine features, and were thought to be pretty; but a less favourable report was made of the women, and especially of those who were advanced in years. Some of the gentlemen, however, belonging to the Discovery, as our commander was informed, paid their addresses and made liberal offers of presents, which were rejected with great disdain. It is certain that this gallantry was not very agreeable to the men: for an elderly man, as soon as he observed it, ordered the women to retire. The order was obeyed; but, on the part of some of the females, with the appearance of a little reluctance.

On the present occasion, Captain Cook made some proper and pertinent reflections, which I shall deliver in his own words. 'This conduct,' says he, 'of Europeans among savages, to their women, is highly blamable; as it creates a jealousy in their men, that may be attended with consequences fatal to the success of the common enterprise, and to the whole body of adventures, without advancing the private purpose of the individual, or enabling him to gain the object of his wishes. I believe it has generally been found, amongst uncivilized people, that where the women are easy of access, the men are the first to offer them to strangers; and that, where this is not the case, neither the allurements of presents, nor the opportunity of privacy will be likely to have the desired effect. This observation, I am sure, will hold good throughout all the parts of the South Sea where I have been. Why then should men act so absurd a part, as to risk their own safety, and that of all their companions, in pursuit of a gratification, which they have no probability of obtaining?'

While our navigators were at Van Dieman's Land, they were successful in obtaining a plentiful crop of grass for their cattle, and such as was far more excellent than what they had met with at their first going on shore. The quantity collected was judged by the captain to be sufficient to last till his arrival in New-Zealand.

Van Dieman's Land had been visited twice before. That name had been given it by Tasman, who discovered it in 1642; from which time it had escaped all notice of European navigators, till Captain Furneaux touched at it, in 1773. It is well known that it is the southern point of New Holland, which is by far the largest island in the world; indeed, so large an island, as almost to deserve the appellation of a continent.

While Captain Cook was at this country, he neglected nothing which could promote the knowledge of science and navigation. Here, as every where else, he settled the latitude and longitude of places; marked the variations of the compass, and recorded the nature of the tides. He corrected, likewise, an error of Captain Furneaux, with respect to the situation of Maria's Islands; on which subject he hath candidly remarked, that his own idea is not the result of a more faithful, but merely of a second, examination.

Mr. Anderson, during the few days in which the ships remained in Adventure Bay, exerted his usual diligence in collecting as full an account as could be obtained, in so short a period of time, of the natural productions and the inhabitants of the country. Little can be said concerning either the personal activity or genius of the natives. The first, they do not seem to possess in any remarkable degree; and, to all appearance, they have less of the last, than even the half-animated inhabitants of Terra del Fuego. Their not expressing that surprise which might have been expected, from their seeing men so much unlike themselves, and things to which they had hitherto been utter strangers; their indifference for the presents of our people, and their general inattention, were sufficient testimonies that they were not endued with any acuteness of understanding. What the ancient poets tell us of Fauns and Satyrs living in hollow trees is realized at Van Dieman's Land. Some wretched constructions of sticks, covered with bark, and which did not deserve the name of huts, were indeed found near the shore; but these seemed only to have been erected for temporary purposes. The most comfortable habitations of the natives were afforded by the largest trees. These had their trunks hollowed out by fire, to the height of six or seven feet; and there was room enough in them for three or four persons to sit round a hearth, made of clay. At the same time, these places of shelter are durable; for the people take care to leave one side of the tree sound, which is sufficient to keep it in luxuriant growth. The inhabitants of Van Dieman's Land are undoubtedly from the same stock with those of the northern parts of New Holland. Their language, indeed, appeared to be different; but how far the difference extended, our voyagers could not have an opportunity of determining. With regard to the New Hollanders in general, there is reason to suppose that they originally came from the same place with all the Indians of the South Sea.

On the 30th of January, 1777, Captain Cook sailed from Adventure Bay, and on the 12th of February came to an anchor at his old station of Queen Charlotte's Sound, in New Zealand. Being unwilling to lose any time, he commenced his operations that very afternoon. By his order, several of the empty water casks were immediately landed, and a place was begun to be cleared for setting up the two observatories, and the erection of tents, to accommodate a guard, and the rest of the company, whose business might require them to remain on shore. Our navigators had not long been at anchor, before a number of canoes, filled with natives, came alongside of the ships. However, very few of them would venture on board; which appeared the more extraordinary, as the captain was well known to them all, and they could not be insensible how liberally he had behaved to them on former occasions. There was one man in particular, whom he had treated with remarkable kindness, during the whole of his last stay in this place; and yet, neither professions of friendship, nor presents, could prevail upon him to enter the Resolution.

There was a real cause for this shyness on the part of the New Zealanders. A dreadful event had happened to some of Captain Furneaux's crew, while he lay in Queen Charlotte's Sound, after he had finally separated from Captain Cook, in the former voyage. Ten men, who had been sent out in the large cutter to gather wild greens, for the ship's company, were killed in a skirmish with the natives. What was the cause of the quarrel could not be ascertained, as not one of the company survived to relate the story. Lieutenant Burney, who was ordered to go in search of them, found only some fragments of their bodies, from which it appeared that they had been converted into the food of the inhabitants. It was the remembrance of this event, and the fear of its being revenged, which now rendered the New Zealanders so fearful of entering the English vessels. From the conversation of Omai, who was on board the Adventure when the melancholy affair happened, they knew that it could not be unknown to Captain Cook. The captain, therefore, judged it necessary to use every endeavour to assure them of the continuance of his friendship, and that he should not disturb them on account of the catastrophe. It was most probably in consequence of this assurance, that they soon laid aside all manner of restraint and distrust.

In the meanwhile, the operations for refitting the ships, and for obtaining provisions were carried on with great vigour, for the protection of the party on shore, our commander appointed a guard of ten marines, and ordered arms for all the workmen; with whom Mr. King, and two or three petty officers, constantly remained. A boat was never sent to a considerable distance without being armed, or without being under the direction of such officers as might be depended upon, and who were well acquainted with the natives. In Captain Cook's former visits to this country, he had never made use of such precautions; nor was he now convinced of their absolute necessity. But, after the tragical fate of the crew of the Adventure's boat in this sound, and of Captain Marion du Fresne, and some of his people, in the Bay of Islands (in 1772), it was impossible to free our navigators from all apprehensions of experiencing a similar calamity.

Whatever suspicions the inhabitants might at first entertain, that their acts of barbarity would be revenged, they very speedily became so perfectly easy upon the subject, as to take up their residence close to our voyagers; and the advantage of their coming to live with the English was not inconsiderable. Every day, when the weather would permit, some of them went out to catch fish, and our people generally obtained, by exchanges, a good share of the produce of their labours, in addition to the supply which was afforded by our own nets and lines. Nor was there a deficiency of vegetable refreshments; to which was united sprucebeer for drink; so that if the seeds of the scurvy had been contracted by any of the crew, they would speedily have been removed by such a regimen. The fact, however, was, that there was only two invalids upon the sick lists in both ships.

Curiosities, fish, and women, were the articles of commerce supplied by the New Zealanders. The two first always came to a good market; but the latter did not happen, at this time, to be an acceptable commodity. Our seamen had conceived a dislike to these people, and were either unwilling or afraid to associate with them; the good effect of which was, that our commander knew no instance of a man's quitting his station, to go to the habitations of the Indians. A connexion with women it was out of Captain Cook's power to prevent; but he never encouraged it, and always was fearful of its consequences. Many, indeed, are of opinion, that such an intercourse is a great security among savages. But if this should ever be the case with those who remain and settle among them, it is generally otherwise with respect to travellers and transient visitors. In such a situation as was that of our navigators, a connexion with the women of the natives, betrays more men than it saves. 'What else,' says the captain, 'can reasonably be expected, since all their views are selfish without the least mixture of regard or attachment? My own experience, at least, which hath been pretty extensive, hath not pointed out to me one instance to the contrary.'

Amongst the persons who occasionally visited the English, was a chief of the name of Kahoora, who, as Captain Cook was informed, had headed the party that cutoff Captain Furneaux's people, and had himself killed Mr. Rowe, the officer who commanded. This man our commander was strongly solicited to put to death, even by some of the natives; and Omai was perfectly eager and violent upon the subject. To these solicitations the captain paid not the least degree of attention. He even admired Kahoora's courage, and was not a little pleased with the confidence with which he had put himself into his power. Kahoora had placed his whole safety in the declarations that Captain Cook had uniformly made to the New Zealanders; which were that he had always been a friend to them all, and would continue to be so, unless they gave him cause to act otherwise; that as to their inhuman treatment of our people, he should think no more of it, the transaction having happened long ago, and when he was not present; but that, if ever they made a second attempt of the same kind, they might rest assured of feeling the weight of his resentment.

While our commander on the 16th, was making an excursion for the purposes of collecting food for his cattle, he embraced the opportunity to inquire, as accurately as possible, into the circumstances which had attended the melancholy fate of our countrymen. Omai was his interpreter on this occasion. The result of the inquiry was, that the quarrel first took its rise from some thefts, in the commission of which the natives were detected; that there was no premeditated plan of bloodshed; and that if these thefts had not, unfortunately, been too hastily resented, no mischief would have happened. Kahoora's greatest enemies, and even the very men that had most earnestly solicited his destruction, confessed, at the same time, that he had no intention of quarrelling with Captain Furneaux's people, and much less of killing any of them, till the fray had actually commenced.

Captain Cook continued in this his last visit to New Zealand, the solicitude he had formerly shewn to be of some essential future service to the country. To one chief he gave two goats, a male and female, with a kid; and to another two pigs, a boar and a sow. Although he had obtained a promise from both these chiefs, that they would not kill the animals which had been presented to them, he could not venture to place any great reliance upon their assurances. It was his full intention, on his present arrival in Queen Charlotte's Sound, to have left not only goats and hogs, but sheep, together with a young bull and two heifers. The accomplishment, however, of this resolution depended either upon his finding a chief, who was powerful enough to protect and keep the cattle, or upon his meeting with a place where there might be a probability of their being concealed from those who would ignorantly attempt to destroy them. Neither of these circumstances happened to be conformable to his wishes. At different times he had left to New Zealand ten or a dozen hogs, besides those which had been put on shore by Captain Furneaux. It will, therefore, be a little extraordinary, if this race of animals should not increase and be preserved, either in a wild or a domestic state, or in both. Our commander was informed, that Tiratou, a popular chief among the natives, had a number of cocks and hens, and one sow, in his separate possession. With regard to the gardens which had formerly been planted though they had almost entirely been neglected, and some of them destroyed, they were not wholly unproductive. They were found to contain cabbages, onions, leeks, purslain, radishes, mustard, and a few potatoes. The potatoes, which had first been brought from the Cape of Good Hope, were greatly meliorated by change of soil; and, with proper cultivation, would be superior to those produced in most other countries.

A great addition of knowledge was obtained, during this voyage, with respect to the productions of New Zealand, and the manners and the customs of its inhabitants. The zeal of Captain Cook upon the subject was admirably seconded by the sedulous diligence of Mr. Anderson, who omitted no opportunity of collecting every kind and degree of information. I shall only so far trespass on the patience of my readers, as to mention a few circumstances tending to delineate the character of the natives. They seemed to be a people perfectly satisfied with the little they already possess; nor are they remarkably curious either in their observations or their inquiries. New objects are so far from striking them with such a degree of surprise as might naturally be expected, that they scarcely fix their attention even for a moment. In the arts with which they are acquainted, they shew as much ingenuity, both in invention and execution, as any uncivilized nations under similar circumstances. Without the least use of those tools which are formed of metal, they make every thing that is necessary to procure their subsistence, clothing, and military weapons; and all this is done by them with a neatness, a strength, and a convenience, that are well adapted to the accomplishment of the several purposes they have in view. No people can have a quicker sense of an injury done to them than the New Zealanders, or be more ready to resent it; and yet they want one characteristic of true bravery; for they will take an opportunity of being insolent, when they think that there is no danger of their being punished. From the number of their weapons, and their dexterity in using them, it appears, that war is their principal profession. Indeed, their public contentions are so frequent, or rather so perpetual, that they must live under continual apprehensions of being destroyed by each other. From their horrid custom of eating the flesh of their enemies, not only without reluctance, but with peculiar satisfaction, it would be natural to suppose that they must be destitute of every humane feeling, even with regard to their own party. This, however, is not the case; for they lament the loss of their friends with a violence of expression which argues the most tender remembrance of them. At a very early age the children are initiated into all the practices, whether good or bad, of their fathers; so that a boy or girl, when only nine or ten years old, can perform the motions, and imitate the frightful gestures, by which the more aged are accustomed to inspire their enemies with terror. They can keep likewise the strictest time in their song; and it is with some degree of melody that they sing the traditions of their forefathers, their actions in war, and other subjects. The military achievements of their ancestors, the New Zealanders celebrate with the highest pleasure, and spend much of their time in diversions of this sort, and in playing upon a musical instrument, which partakes of the nature of a flute. With respect to their language, it is far from being harsh or disagreeable, though the pronunciation of it is frequently guttural; nor, if we may judge from the melody of some kinds of their songs, is it destitute of those qualities, which fit it to be associated with music. Of its identity with the languages of the other islands throughout the South Sea, fresh proofs were exhibited during the present voyage.

At the request of Omai, Captain Cook consented to take with him two youths from New Zealand. That they might not quit their native country under any deluding ideas of visiting it again, the captain took care to inform their parents, in the strongest terms, that they would never return. This declaration seemed, however, to make no kind of impression. The father of the youngest had resigned him with an indifference, which he would scarcely have shewn at parting with his dog, and even stripped the boy of the little clothing he possessed, delivering him quite naked into the hands of our voyagers. This was not the case with the mother of the other youth. She took her leave of him with all the marks of tender affection that might be expected between a parent and a child on such an occasion; but she soon resumed her cheerfulness, and went away wholly unconcerned.

On the 25th of the month, Captain Cook stood out of Queen Charlotte's Sound, and by the 27th got clear of New Zealand. No sooner had the ships lost sight of the land, than the two young adventurers from that country, one of whom was nearly eighteen years of age, and the other about ten, began deeply to repent of the step they had taken. It was the experience of the sea-sickness, which gave this turn to their reflections; and all the soothing encouragement the English could think of, was but of a little avail. They wept, both in public and in private, and made their lamentation in a kind of song, that seemed to be expressive of the praises of their country and people, from which they were to be separated for ever. In this disposition they continued for many days: but as their sea-sickness wore off, and the tumult of their minds subsided, the fits of lamentation became less and less frequent, and at length entirely ceased. By degrees, their native country and their friends were forgotten, and they appeared to be as firmly attached to our navigators, as if they had been born in England.

In the prosecution of the voyage, Captain Cook met with unfavourable winds; and it was not till the 29th of March that land was discovered. It was found to be an inhabited island, the name of which, as was learned from two of the natives, who came off in a canoe, is Mangeea. Our commander examined the coast with his boats, and had a short intercourse with some of the inhabitants. Not being able to find a proper harbour for bringing the ships to an anchorage, he was obliged, to leave the country unvisited, though it seemed capable of supplying all the wants of our voyagers. The island of Mangeea is full five leagues in circuit, and of a moderate and pretty equal height. It has, upon the whole, a pleasing aspect, and might be made a beautiful spot by cultivation. The inhabitants, who appeared to be both numerous and well fed, seemed to resemble those of Otaheite and the Marquesas in the beauty of their persons; and the resemblance, as far as could be judged in so short a compass of time, takes place, with respect to their general disposition and character.

From the coast of Mangeea our commander sailed in the afternoon of the 30th, and on the next day land was again seen, within four leagues of which the ships arrived on the 1st of April. Our people could then pronounce it to be an island, nearly of the same appearance and extent with that which had so lately been left. Some of the natives speedily put off in their canoes, and three of them were pursuaded to come on board the Resolution; on which occasion, their whole behaviour marked that they were quite at their ease, and felt no kind of apprehension that they should be detained, or ill used. In a visit from several others of the inhabitants, they manifested a dread of approaching near the cows and horses: nor could they form the least conception of their nature. But the sheep and goats did not, in their opinion, surpass the limits of their ideas; for they gave our navigators to understand that they knew them to be birds. As there is not the most distant resemblance between a sheep or goat, and any winged animal, this may be thought to be almost an incredible example of human ignorance. But it should be remembered, that, excepting hogs, dogs, and birds, these people were strangers to the existence of any other land animals.

In a farther intercourse with the natives, who had brought a hog, together with some plantains and cocoanuts, they demanded a dog from our voyagers, and refused every thing besides which was offered in exchange. One of the gentlemen on board happened to have a dog and a bitch which were great nuisances in the ship; and these he might now have disposed of in a manner that would have been of real future utility to the island. But he had no such views in making them the companions of his voyage. Omai, however, with a goodnature that reflects honour upon him, parted with a favourite dog which he had brought from England; and with this acquisition the people departed highly satisfied.

On the 3rd of April, Captain Cook dispatched Mr. Gore, with three boats, to endeavour to get upon the island. Mr. Gore himself, Omai, Mr. Anderson, and Mr. Burney were the only persons that landed. The transactions of the day, of which Mr. Anderson, drew up an ingenious and entertaining account, added to the stock of knowledge gained by our navigators, but did not accomplish Captain Cook's principal object. Nothing was procured by the gentlemen, from the island, that supplied the wants of the ships. In this expedition, Omai displayed that turn of exaggeration, with which travellers have so frequently been charged. Being asked by the natives concerning the English, their ships, their country, and the arms they made use of, his answers were not a little marvellous. He told these people, that our country had ships as large as their islands; on board which were instruments of war (describing our guns) of such dimensions, that several persons might sit within them. At the same time, he assured the inhabitants, that one of these guns was sufficient to crush their whole island at a single shot. Though he was obliged to acknowledge that the guns on board the vessels upon their coast were but small, he contrived by an explosion of gunpowder, to inspire them with a formidable idea of their nature and effect. It is probable, that this representation of, things contributed to the preservation of the gentlemen, in their enterprise on shore; for a strong disposition to retain them had been shewn by the natives.

It seemed destined that this day should give Omai more occasions than one of bearing a principal part in its transactions. The island, though never visited by Europeans before, happened to have other strangers residing in it; and it was entirely owing to Omai's having attended on the expedition, that a circumstance so curious came to the knowledge of the English. Scarcely had he been landed upon the beach, when he found, among the crowd which had assembled there, three of his own countrymen, natives of the Society Islands. That, at the distance of about two hundred leagues from those islands, an immense unknown ocean intervening, with the wretched boats their inhabitants are known to make use of, and fit only for a passage where sight of land is scarcely ever lost, such a meeting, at such a place, so accidentally visited, should occur, may well be regarded as one of those unexpected situations with which the writers of feigned adventures love to surprise their readers. When events of this kind really happen in common life, they deserve to be recorded for their singularity. It may easily be supposed with what mutual surprise and satisfaction this interview of Omai with his countrymen was attended. Twelve years before, about twenty persons in number, of both sexes, had embarked on board a canoe at Otaheite, to cross over to the neighbouring island of Ulietea. A violent storm having arisen, which drove them out of their course, and their provisions being very scanty, they suffered incredible hardships, and the greatest part of them perished by famine and fatigue. Four men only survived when the boat overset, and then the destruction of this small remnant appeared to be inevitable. However, they kept hanging by the side of the vessel, which they continued to do for some days, when they were providentially brought within sight of the people of this island, who immediately sent out canoes and brought them on shore. The three men who now survived, expressed a strong sense of the kind treatment they had received; and so well satisfied were they with their present situation, that they refused an offer which was made them of being conveyed to their native country. A very important instruction may be derived from the preceding narrative. It will serve to explain, better than a thousand conjectures of speculative reasoners, how the detached parts of the earth, and, in particular, how the islands of the South Sea, though lying remote from any inhabited continent, or from each other, may have originally been peopled. Similar adventures have occurred in the history of navigation and shipwrecks.

The island on which Mr. Gore, Mr. Anderson, Mr. Burney, and Omai, had landed is called Wateeoo by the natives, and is a beautiful spot, having a surface composed of hills and plains, which are covered with a verdure rendered extremely pleasant by the diversity of its hues. Its inhabitants are very numerous; and many of the young men were perfect models in shape; besides which, they had complexions as delicate as those of the women, and appeared to be equally amiable in their dispositions. In their manners, their general habits of life, and their religious ceremonies and opinions, these islanders have a near resemblance to the people of Otaheite and its neighbouring isles; and their language was well understood, both by Omai and the two New Zealanders.

The next place visited by Captain Cook was a small island, called Wennooa-ette, or Otakootaia, to which Mr. Gore was sent, at the head of a party who procured about a hundred cocoa-nuts for each ship, and some grass, together with a quantity of the leaves and branches of young trees, for the cattle. Though, at this time, no inhabitants were found in Wennooa-ette, yet, as there remained indubitable marks of its being, at least, occasionally frequented, Mr. Gore left a hatchet, and several nails, to the full value of what had been taken away.

On the 5th, our commander directed his course for Harvey's Island, which was only at the distance of fifteen leagues, and where he hoped to procure some refreshments. This island had been discovered by him, in 1773, during his last voyage, when no traces were discerned of its having any inhabitants. It was now experienced to be well peopled, and by a race of men who appeared to differ much, both in person and disposition, from the natives of Wateeoo. Their behaviour was disorderly and clamorous; their colour was of a deeper cast; and several of them had a fierce and rugged aspect. It was remarkable, that not one of them had adopted the practice, so generally prevalent among the people of the southern Ocean, of puncturing or _tatooing_ their bodies. But notwithstanding this singularity, the most unequivocal proofs were exhibited of their having the same common origin; and their language, in particular, approached still nearer to the dialect of Otaheite, than that of Wateeoo, or Mangea. No anchorage for the ships being found in Harvey's island, Captain Cook quitted it without delay.

The captain being thus disappointed at all the islands he had met with, since his leaving New Zealand, and his progress having unavoidably been retarded by unfavourable winds, and other unforeseen circumstances, it became impossible to think of doing any thing this year in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere, from which he was still at so great a distance, though the season for his operations there was already begun. In this situation, it was absolutely necessary, in the first place, to pursue such measures as were most likely to preserve the cattle that were on board. A still more capital object was to save the stores and provisions of the ships, that he might the better be enabled to prosecute his discoveries to the north, which could not now be commenced till a year later than was originally intended. If he had been so fortunate as to have procured a supply of water, and of grass, at any of the islands he had lately visited, it was his purpose to have stood back to the south, till he had met with a westerly wind. But the certain consequence of doing this, without such a supply, would have been the loss of all the cattle; while at the same time, not a single advantage would have been gained, with regard to the grand ends of the voyage. He determined, therefore, to beat away for the Friendly Islands, where he was sure of being abundantly provided.

In pursuing his course, agreeably to this resolution, our commander, on the 14th, reached Palmerston Island, where, and at a neighbouring islet, both of which were uninhabited, some little relief was obtained. The boats soon procured a load of scurvy-grass and young cocoa-nut trees, which was a feast for the cattle; and the same feast, with the addition of palm cabbage, and the tender branches of the _wharra_ tree, was continued for several days. On the 16th, Omai, being on shore with the captain, caught with a scoop-net, in a very short time, as much fish as served the whole party for dinner, besides sending a quantity to both the ships. Birds, too, and particularly men-of-war and tropic birds, were plentifully obtained; so that our navigators had sumptuous entertainment. Omai acted as cook upon the occasion. The fish and the birds he dressed with heated stones, after the manner of his country; and performed the operation with a dexterity and good humour which were greatly to his credit. From the islet before mentioned, twelve hundred cocoa-nuts were procured, which being equally divided among the crew, were of great use to them, both on account of the juice and the kernel. There is no water in the islets which are comprehended under the name of Palmerston Island. If that article could be obtained, and good anchorage could be accomplished within the reef, Captain Cook would prefer this island to any of the uninhabited ones, for the mere purpose of refreshment. The quantity of fish that might be caught would be sufficient; and a ship's company could roam about unmolested by the petulance of the inhabitants.

Different opinions have been entertained concerning the formation of the low islands in the great ocean. From the observations which our commander now made, he was convinced, that such islands are formed from shoals, or coral banks, and, consequently, that they are always increasing.

After leaving Palmerston's Island, Captain Cook steered to the west, with a view of making the best of his way to Annamooka. During his course, the showers were so copious, that our navigators saved a considerable quantity of water. Finding that a greater supply could be obtained by the rain in one hour, than could be gotten by distillation in a month, the captain laid aside the still as a thing which was attended with more trouble than profit. At this time, the united heat and moisture of the weather, in addition to the impossibility of keeping the ships dry, threatened to be noxious to the health of our people. It was however, remarkable, that neither the constant use of salt food, nor the vicissitudes of climate, were productive of any evil effects. Though the only material refreshment our voyagers had received, since their leaving the Cape of Good Hope, was that which they had procured at New Zealand, there was not, as yet, a single sick person on board. This happy situation of things was undoubtedly owing to the unremitting attention of our commander, in seeing that no circumstance was neglected, which could contribute to the preservation of the health of his company.

On the 28th of April, Captain Cook touched at the Island of Komango; and, on the 1st of May, he arrived at Annamooka. The station he took was the very same which he had occupied when he visited the country three years before; and it was probably almost in the same place where Tasman, the first discoverer of this and some of the neighbouring islands, anchored in 1643. A friendly intercourse was immediately opened with the natives, and every thing was settled to the captain's satisfaction. He received the greatest civilities from Toobou, the chief of Annamooka; and Taipa, a chief from the Island of Komango, attached himself to the English in so extraordinary a manner, that, in order to be near them in the night, as well as in the day, he had a house brought on men's shoulders, a full quarter of a mile, and placed close to the shed, which was occupied by our party on shore. On the 6th our commander was visited by a great chief from Tongataboo, whose name was Feenou, and who was falsely represented, by Taipa, to be the king of all the Friendly Isles. The only interruption to the harmony which subsisted between our people and the natives of Annamooka arose from the thievish disposition of many of the inhabitants. They afforded frequent opportunities of remarking, how expert they were in the business of stealing. Even some of the chiefs did not think the profession unbecoming their dignity. One of them was detected in carrying a bolt out of the ship, concealed under his clothes; for which Captain Cook sentenced him to have a dozen lashes, and kept him confined till he had paid a hog for his liberty. After this act of justice, our navigators were no longer troubled with thieves of rank: but their servants, or slaves, were still employed in the dirty work; and upon them a flogging seemed to make no greater impression that it would have done upon the mainmast. When any of them happened to be caught in the act, so far were their masters from interceding in their favour, that they often advised our gentlemen to kill them. This, however, being a punishment too severe to be inflicted, they generally escaped without being punished at all; for of the shame, as well as of the pain of corporal chastisement, they appeared to be equally insensible. At length, Captain Clerke invented a mode of treatment, which was thought to be productive of some good effect. He put the thieves into the hands of the barber, and completely shaved their heads. In consequence of this operation, they became objects of ridicule to their own countrymen; and our people, by keeping them at a distance, were enabled to deprive them of future opportunities for a repetition of their rogueries.

The island of Annamooka being exhausted of its articles of food, Captain Cook proposed, on the 11th, to proceed directly for Tongataboo. From this resolution, however, he was diverted, at the instance of Feenou, who warmly recommended in preference to it, an island, or rather a group of islands, called Hapaee, lying to the north-east. There, he assured our voyagers, they could be plentifully supplied with every refreshment, in the easiest manner; and he enforced his advice by engaging to attend them thither in person. Accordingly, Hapaee was made choice of for the next station; and the examination of it became an object with the captain, as it had never been visited by any European ships.

On the 17th, our commander arrived at Hapaee, where he met with a most friendly reception from the inhabitants, and from Earoupa, the chief of the island. During the whole stay of our navigators, the time was spent in a reciprocation of presents, civilities, and solemnities. On the part of the natives were displayed single combats with clubs, wrestling and boxing-matches, female combatants, dances performed by men, and night entertainments of singing and dancing. The English, on the other hand, gave pleasure to the Indians by exercising the marines, and excited their astonishment by the exhibition of fireworks. After curiosity had, on both sides, been sufficiently gratified, Captain Cook applied himself to the examination of Hapaee, Lefooga, and other neighbouring islands. As the ships were returning, on the 31st, from these islands to Annamooka, the Resolution was very near running full upon a low sandy isle, called Pootoo Pootooa, surrounded with breakers. It fortunately happened, that the men had just been ordered upon deck to put the vessel about, and were most of them at their stations; so that the necessary movements were executed not only with judgment, but also with alertness. This alone saved the ship and her company from destruction. 'Such hazardous situations,' says the captain, 'are the unavoidable companions of the man who goes upon a voyage of discovery.'

During our commander's expedition to Hapaee, he was introduced to Poulaho, the real king of the Friendly Isles; in whose presence it instantly appeared how groundless had been Feenou's pretensions to that character. Feenou, however, was a chief of great note and influence. By Poulaho Captain Cook was invited to pass over to Tongataboo, which request he complied with after he had touched, for two or three days, at Annamooka. In the passage, the Resolution was insensibly drawn upon a large flat, on which lay innumerable coral rocks of different depths below the surface of the water. Notwithstanding all the care and attention of our people to keep her clear of them, they could not prevent her from striking on one of these rocks. The same event happened to the Discovery; but fortunately neither of the ships stuck fast or received any damage.

On the 10th of June, Captain Cook arrived at Tongataboo, where the king was waiting for him upon the beach, and immediately conducted him to a small, but neat house, which, he was told, was at his service, during his stay in the island. The house was situated a little within the skirts of the woods, and had a fine large area before it; so that a more agreeable spot could not have been provided. Our commander's arrival at Tongataboo was followed by a succession of entertainments similar to those which had occurred at Hapaee, though somewhat diversified in circumstances, and exhibited with additional splendour. The pleasure, however, of the visit was occasionally interrupted by the thieveries of many of the inhabitants. Nothing could prevent their plundering our voyagers, in every quarter; and they did it in the most daring and insolent manner. There was scarcely any thing which they did not attempt to steal; and yet, as the crowd was always great, the captain would not permit the sentinels to fire, lest the innocent should suffer with the guilty.

Captain Cook, on the 19th, made a distribution of the animals which he had selected as presents for the principal men of the island. To Poulaho, the king, he gave a young English bull and cow, together with three goats; to Mareewagee, a chief of consequence, a Cape ram and two ewes; and to Feenou a horse and a mare. He likewise left in the island a young boar and three young sows of the English breed; and two rabbits, a buck and a doe. Omai, at the same time, was instructed to represent the importance of these animals, and to explain, as far as he was capable of doing it, the manner in which they should be preserved and treated. Even the generosity of the captain was not without its inconveniences. It soon appeared that some were dissatisfied with the allotment of the animals; for, next morning, two kids and two Turkey-cocks were missing. As our commander could not suppose, that this was an accidental loss, he determined to have them again. The first step he took was to seize on three canoes that happened to be alongside the ships; after which he went on shore, and having found the king, his brother, Feenou, and some other chiefs, he immediately put a guard over them, and gave them to understand, that they must remain under restraint, till not only the kid and the turkeys, but the rest of the things which, at different times, had been stolen from our voyagers, should be restored. This bold step of Captain Cook was attended with a very good effect. Some of the articles which had been lost were instantly brought back, and such good assurances were given with regard to the remainder, that, in the afternoon, the chiefs were released. It was a happy circumstance, with respect to this transaction, that it did not abate the future confidence of Poulaho and his friends in the captain's kind and generous treatment.

On the 5th of July was an eclipse of the sun, which, however, in consequence of unfavourable weather, was very imperfectly observed. Happily, the disappointment was of little consequence, as the longitude was more than sufficiently determined by lunar observations.

Captain Cook sailed from Tongataboo on the 10th, and, two days after, came to anchor at the island of Middleburg, or Eooa, as it is called by the inhabitants. Here he was immediately visited by Taoofa, the chief, with whom he had formerly been acquainted. The intercourse now renewed was friendly in the highest degree, both with Taoofa and the rest of the natives; and our commander endeavoured to meliorate their condition by planting a pineapple and sowing the seeds of melons, and other vegetables, in the chief's plantation. To this he was encouraged by a proof that his past endeavours had not been wholly unsuccessful. He had, one day, served up to him at his dinner, a dish of turnips, being the produce of the seeds which he had left at Eooa in his last voyage.

The stay which Captain Cook made at the Friendly Islands was between two and three months; during which time, some accidental difference excepted, there subsisted the utmost cordiality between the English and the natives. These differences were never attended with any fatal consequences; which happy circumstance was principally owing to the unremitting attention of the captain, who directed all his measures with a view to the prevention of such quarrels, as would be injurious either to the inhabitants or to his own people. So long as our navigators staid at the islands, they expended very little of their sea provisions, subsisting, in general, upon the produce of the country, and carrying away with them a quantity of refreshments, sufficient to last till their arrival at another station, where they could depend upon a fresh supply. It was a singular pleasure to our commander, that he possessed an opportunity of adding to the happiness of these good Indians, by the useful animals which he left among them. Upon the whole, the advantages of having landed at the Friendly Islands were very great; and Captain Cook reflected upon it with peculiar satisfaction, that these advantages were obtained without retarding, for a single moment, the prosecution of the great object of his voyage; the season for proceeding to the north having been previously lost.

Besides the immediate benefits which both the natives and the English derived from their mutual intercourse on the present occasion, such a large addition was now made to the geographical knowledge of this part of the Pacific Ocean, as may render no small service to future navigators. Under the denomination of the Friendly Islands must be included not only the group of Hapaee, but all those islands that have been discovered nearly under the same meridian, to the north, as well as some others, which, though they have never hitherto been seen by any European voyagers, are under the dominion of Tongataboo. From the information which our commander received, it appears, that this archipelago is very extensive. Above one hundred and fifty islands were reckoned up by the natives, who made use of bits of leaves to ascertain their number; and Mr. Anderson, with his usual diligence, procured all their names. Fifteen of them are said to be high or hilly, and thirty-five of them large. Concerning the size of the thirty-two which were unexplored, it can only be mentioned, that they must be larger than Annamooka, which was ranked amongst the smaller isles. Several, indeed, of those which belong to this latter denomination, are mere spots, without inhabitants. Captain Cook had not the least doubt but that Prince William's Islands, discovered and so named by Tasman, were comprehended in the list furnished by the natives. He had also good authority for believing that Keppel's and Boscawen's Islands, two of Captain Wallis's discoveries to 1765, were included in the same list; and that they were under the sovereign of Tongataboo, which is the grand seat of government. It must be left to future navigators to extend the geography of this part of the South Pacific Ocean, by ascertaining the exact situation and size of nearly a hundred islands, in the neighbourhood, which our commander had no opportunity of exploring.

During the present visit to the Friendly Islands, large additions were made to the knowledge which was obtained, in the last voyage, of the natural history and productions of the country, and the manners and customs of its inhabitants. Though it does not fall within the plan of this narrative to enter into a detail of the particulars recorded, I cannot help taking notice of the explanation which Captain Cook has given of the thievish disposition of the natives. It is an explanation which reflects honour upon his sagacity, humanity, and candour and therefore I shall relate it in his own words: 'The only defect,' says he, 'sullying their character, that we know of, is a propensity to thieving; to which we found those of all ages, and both sexes, addicted, and to an uncommon degree. It should, however, be considered, that this exceptionable part of their conduct seemed to exist merely with respect to us; for, in their general intercourse with one another, I had reason to be of opinion, that thefts do not happen more frequently (perhaps less so) than in other countries, the dishonest practices of whose worthless individuals are not supposed to authorize any indiscriminate censure on the whole body of the people. Great allowances should be made for the foibles of these poor natives of the Pacific Ocean, whose minds were overpowered with the glare of objects, equally new to them as they were captivating. Stealing, among the civilized nations of the world, may well be considered as denoting a character deeply stained with moral turpitude: with avarice, unrestrained by the known rules of right; and with profligacy, producing extreme indigence, and neglecting the means of relieving it. But at the Friendly and other islands which we visited, the thefts, so frequently committed by the natives, of what we had brought along with us, may be fairly traced to less culpable motives. They seemed to arise solely from an intense curiosity or desire to possess something which they had not been accustomed to before, and belonging to a sort of people so different from themselves. And, perhaps, if it were possible, that a set of beings, seemingly, as superior in our judgment, as we are in theirs, should appear amongst us, it might be doubted, whether our natural regard to justice would be able to restrain many from falling into the same error. That I have assigned the true motive for their propensity to this practice, appears from their stealing every thing indiscriminately at first sight, before they could have the least conception of converting their prize to any one useful purpose. But, I believe, with us, no person would forfeit his reputation, or expose himself to punishment, without knowing, beforehand, how to employ the stolen goods. Upon the whole, the pilfering disposition of these islanders, though certainly disagreeable and troublesome to strangers, was the means of affording us some information as to the quickness of their intellects.'

With respect to the religion of these Indians, Mr. Anderson maintains, that they have very proper sentiments concerning the immateriality and immortality of the soul; and thinks himself sufficiently authorized to assert, that they do not worship any thing which is the work of their own hands, or any visible part of the creation. The language of the Friendly Islands has the greatest imaginable conformity with that of New Zealand, of Wateeoo, and Mangeea. Several hundreds of the words of it were collected by Mr. Anderson; and amongst these, are terms that express numbers reaching to a hundred thousand. Beyond this limit they never went, and probably were not able to go farther; for it was observed, that when they had gotten thus far, they commonly used a word which expresses an indefinite number.

On the 17th of July, our commander took his final leave of the Friendly Islands, and resumed his voyage. An eclipse was observed in the night between the 20th and the 21st; and on the 8th of August land was discovered. Some of the inhabitants, who came off in canoes, seemed earnestly to invite our people to go on shore; but Captain Cook did not think proper to run the risk of losing the advantage of a fair wind, for the sake of examining an island which appeared to be of little consequence. Its name, as was learned from the natives, who spake the Otaheite language, is Toobonai.

Pursuing his course, the captain reached Otaheite on the 12th, and steered for Oheitepeha Bay, with an intention to anchor there, in order to draw what refreshments he could from the south-east part of the island, before he went down to Matavai. Omai's first reception amongst his countrymen was not entirely of a flattering nature. Though several persons came on board who knew him, and one of them was his brother-in-law, there was nothing remarkably tender or striking in their meeting. An interview which Omai had, on the 13th, with his sister, was agreeable to the feelings of nature; for their meeting was marked with expressions of tender affection, more easy to be conceived than described. In a visit, likewise, which he received from an aunt, the old lady threw herself at his feet, and plentifully bedewed them with tears of joy.

Captain Cook was informed by the natives, that, since he was last at the island, in 1774, two ships had been twice in Oheitepeha Bay, and had left animals in the country. These, on farther inquiry, were found to be hogs, dogs, goats, one bull, and a ram. That the vessels which had visited Otaheite were Spanish, was plain from an inscription that was cut upon a wooden cross, standing at some distance from the front of a house which had been occupied by the strangers. On the transverse part of the cross was inscribed,

_Christus vincit._

And on the perpendicular part,

_Carolus III. imperat. 1774._

Our commander took this occasion to preserve the memory of the prior visits of the English, by inscribing, on the other side of the post,

_Georgius tertius Rex.
Annis 1767,
1769, 1773, 1774, & 1777._

Whatever might be the intentions of the Spaniards in their visit to the island, it ought to be remembered to their honour, that they behaved so well to the inhabitants, as always to be spoken of in the strongest expressions of esteem and veneration.

Captain Cook had at this time an important affair to settle. As he knew that he could now be furnished with a plentiful supply of cocoa-nuts, the liquor of which is an excellent and wholesome beverage, he was desirous of prevailing upon his people to consent to their being abridged, during their stay at Otaheite and the neighbouring islands, of their stated allowance of spirits to mix with water. But as this stoppage of a favourite article, without assigning some reason for it, might occasion a general murmur, he thought it most prudent to assemble the ship's company, and to make known to them the design of the voyage, and the extent of the future operations. To animate them in undertaking with cheerfulness and perseverance what lay before them he took notice of the rewards offered by parliament, to such of his majesty's subjects as should first discover a communication between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, in any direction whatever, in the northern hemisphere; and also to such as should first penetrate beyond the eighty-ninth degree of northern latitude. The captain made no doubt, he told them, that he should find them willing to co-operate with him in attempting as far as might be possible, to become entitled to one or both these rewards; but that, to give the best chance of success, it would be necessary to observe the utmost economy in the expenditure of the stores and provisions, particularly the latter, as there was no probability of getting a supply any where, after leaving these islands. He strengthened his argument by reminding them, that, in consequence of the opportunity's having been lost of getting to the north this summer, the voyage must last at least a year longer than had originally been supposed. He entreated them to consider the various obstructions and difficulties they might still meet with, and the aggravated hardships they would endure, if it should be found necessary to put them to short allowance, of any species of provisions, in a cold climate. For these very substantial reasons, he submitted to them, whether it would not be better to be prudent in time, and, rather than to incur the hazard of having no spirits left, when such a cordial would most be wanted, to consent to give up their grog now, when so excellent a liquor as that of cocoa-nuts could be substituted in its place. In conclusion, our commander left the determination of the matter entirely to their own choice.

This speech which certainly partook much of the nature of true eloquence, if a discourse admirably calculated for persuasion be entitled to that character, produced its full effect on the generous minds of English seamen. Captain Cook had the satisfaction of finding that his proposal did not remain a single moment under consideration; being unanimously and immediately approved of, without the least objection. By our commander's order, Captain Clerke made the same proposal to his people, to which they, likewise, agreed. Accordingly, grog was no longer served, excepting on Saturday nights; when the companies of both ships had a full allowance of it, that they might drink the healths of their friends in England.

On the 24th, Captain Cook quitted the south-east part of Otaheite, and resumed his old station in Matavia Bay. Immediately upon his arrival, he was visited by Otoo, the king of the whole island, and their former friendship was renewed; a friendship which was continued without interruption, and cemented by a perpetual succession of civilities, good offices, and entertainments. One of our commander's first objects was to dispose of all the European animals which were in the ships. Accordingly, he conveyed to Oparre, Otoo's place of residence, a peacock and hen; a turkey cock and hen, one gander and three geese, a drake and four ducks. The geese and ducks began to breed before our navigators left their present station. There were already, at Otoo's, several goats, and the Spanish bull; which was one of the finest animals of the kind that was ever seen. To the bull Captain Cook sent the three cows he had on board, together with a bull of his own; to all which were added the horse and mare, and the sheep that had still remained in the vessels.

The captain found himself lightened of a very heavy burden, in having disposed of these passengers. It is not easy to conceive the trouble and vexation, which had attended the conveyance of this living cargo, through such various hazards, and to so immense a distance. But the satisfaction which our commander felt, in having been so fortunate as to fulfil his majesty's humane designs, in sending such valuable animals, to supply the wants of the two worthy nations, afforded him an ample recompense for the many anxious hours he had passed, before this subordinate object of his voyage could be carried into execution.

At this time a war was on the point of breaking out, between the inhabitants of Eimeo and those of Otaheite; and by the latter Captain Cook was requested to take a part in their favour. With this request, however, though enforced by frequent and urgent solicitations, the captain, according to his usual wisdom, refused to comply. He alleged, that, as he was not thoroughly acquainted with the dispute, and the people of Eimeo had never offended him, he could not think himself at liberty to engage in hostilities against them. With these reasons Otoo and most of the chiefs appeared to be satisfied; but one of them, Towha, was so highly displeased, that our commander never afterward recovered his friendship.

Upon the present occasion, Captain Cook had full and undeniable proof, that the offering of human sacrifices forms a part of the religious institutions of Otaheite. Indeed, he was a witness to a solemnity of this kind; the process of which he has particularly described, and has related it with the just sentiments of indignation and abhorrence. The unhappy victim, who was now offered to the object of worship, seemed to be a middle-aged man, and was said to be one of the lowest class of the people. But the captain could not learn, after all his inquiries, whether the wretch had been fixed upon on account of his having committed any crime which was supposed to be deserving of death. It is certain, that a choice is generally, made either of such guilty persons for the sacrifices, or of common low fellows, who stroll about from place to place, without any visible methods of obtaining an honest subsistence. Those who are devoted to suffer, are never apprised of their fate, till the blow is given, that puts an end to their being. Whenever, upon any particular emergency, one of the great chiefs considers a human sacrifice to be necessary, he pitches upon the victim, and then orders him to be suddenly fallen upon and killed, either with clubs or stones. Although it should be supposed, that no more than one person is ever devoted to destruction on any single occasion, at Otaheite, it will still be found that these occurrences are so frequent, as to cause a shocking waste of the human race; for our commander counted no less than forty-nine skulls of former victims, lying before the Morai, where he had seen another added to the number. It was apparent, from the freshness of these skulls, that no great length of time had elapsed since the wretches to whom they belonged had been offered upon the altar of blood.

There is reason to fear, that this custom is as extensive as it is horrid. It is highly probable that it prevails throughout the widely diffused islands of the Pacific Ocean; and Captain Cook had particular evidence of its subsisting at the Friendly Islands. To what an extent the practice of human sacrifices was carried in the ancient world, is not unknown to the learned. Scarcely any nation was free from it in a certain state of society; and, as religious reformation is one of the last efforts of the human mind, the practice may be continued, even when the manners are otherwise far removed from savage life. It may have been a long time before civilization has made such a progress as to deprive superstition of its cruelty, and to divert it from barbarous rites to ceremonies which, though foolish enough, are comparatively mild, gentle and innocent.

On the 5th of September, an accident happened, which, though slight in itself, was of some consequence from the situation of things. A young ram of the Cape breed, which had been lambed and brought up with great care on board the ship, as killed by a dog. Desirous as Captain Cook was of propagating so useful a race among the Society Islands, the loss of a ram was a serious misfortune. It was the only one he had of that breed; and of the English breed a single ram was all that remained.

Captain Cook and Captain Clerke, on the 14th, mounted on horseback, and took a ride round the plain of Matavai, to the great surprise of a large number of the natives, who attended upon the occasion, and gazed upon the gentlemen with as much astonishment as if they bad been Centaurs. What the two captains had begun was afterward repeated every day, by one and another of our people; notwithstanding which, the curiosity of the Otaheitans still continued unabated. They were exceedingly delighted with these animals, after they had seen the use which was made of them. Not all the novelties put together, which European visitors had carried amongst the inhabitants, inspired them with so high an idea of the greatness of distant nations.

Though Captain Cook would not take a part in the quarrels between the islands, he was ready to protect his particular friends, when in danger of being injured. Towha, who commanded the expedition against Eimeo, had been obliged to submit to a disgraceful accommodation. Being full of resentment, on account of his not having been properly supported, he was said to have threatened, that, as soon as the captain should leave the island, he would join his forces to those of Tiaraboo, and attack Otoo, at Matavai or Oparre. This induced our commander to declare, in the most public manner, that he was determined to espouse the interest of his friend, against any such combination; and that, whoever presumed to assault him, should feel the weight of his heavy displeasure, when he returned again to Otaheite. Captain Cook's declaration had probably the desired effect; for, if Towha had formed hostile intentions, no more was heard of the matter.

The manner in which our commander was freed from a rheumatic complaint, that consisted of a pain extending from the hip to the foot, deserves to be recorded. Otoo's mother, his three sisters, and eight other women went on board, for the express purpose of undertaking the cure of his disorder. He accepted of their friendly offer, had a bed spread for them on the cabin floor, and submitted himself to their directions. Being desired to lay himself down amongst them, then, as many of them as could get round him began to squeeze him with both hands, from head to foot, but more particularly in the part where the pain was lodged till they made his bones crack, and his flesh became a perfect mummy. After undergoing this discipline about a quarter of an hour, he was glad to be released from the women. The operation, however gave him immediate relief; so that he was encouraged to submit to another rubbing down before he went to bed; the consequence of which was, that he was tolerably easy all the succeeding night. His female physicians repeated their prescription the next morning, and again in the evening; after which his pains were entirely removed, and the cure was perfected. This operation, which is called _romee_, is universally practised among these islanders; being sometimes, performed by the men, but more generally by the women.

Captain Cook, who now had come to the resolution of departing soon from Otaheite, accompanied, on the 27th, Otoo to Oparre, and examined the cattle and poultry, which he had consigned to his friend's care at that place. Everything was in a promising way, and properly attended. The captain procured from Otoo four goats; two of which he designed to leave at Ulietea, where none had as yet been introduced; and the other two he proposed to reserve for the use of any islands he might chance to meet with in his passage to the north. On the next day, Oleo came on board, and informed our commander that he had gotten a canoe, which he desired him to carry home, as a present to the Earee rahie no Pretane. This, he said, was the only thing he could send which was worthy of his majesty's, acceptance. Captain Cook was not a little pleased with Otoo, for this mark of his gratitude; and the more, as the thought was entirely his own. Not one of our people had given him the least hint concerning it; and it shewed, that he was fully sensible to whom he stood indebted for the most valueable presents that he had received. As the canoe was too large to be taken on board, the captain could only thank him for his good intentions; but it would have given him a much greater satisfaction, if his present could have been accepted.

During this visit of our voyagers to Otaheite, such a cordial friendship and confidence subsisted between them and the natives, as never once to be interrupted by any untoward accident. Our commander had made the chiefs fully sensible, that it was their interest to treat with him on fair and equitable terms, and to keep their people from plundering or stealing. So great was Otoo's attachment to the English, that he seemed pleased with the idea of their having a permanent settlement at Matavai; not considering, that from that time he would be deprived of his kingdom, and the inhabitants of their liberties. Captain Cook had too much gratitude and regard for these islanders, to wish that such an event should ever take place. Though our occasional visits may, in some respects, have been of advantage to the natives, he was afraid that a durable establishment among them, conducted as most European establishments amongst Indian nations have unfortunately been, would give them just cause to lament that they had been discovered by our navigators. It is not, indeed, likely that a measure of this kind should at any time seriously be adopted, because it cannot serve either the, purposes of public ambition, or private avarice; and, without such inducements, the captain has ventured to pronounce that it will never be undertaken.

From Otaheite our voyagers sailed, on the 30th, to Eimeo, where they came to an anchor on the same day. At this island the transactions which happened were, for the most part, very unpleasant. A goat, which was stolen, was recovered without any extraordinary difficulty, and one of the thieves was, at the same time, surrendered; being the first instance of the kind that our commander had met with in his connexions with the Society Islands. The stealing of another goat was attended with an uncommon degree of perplexity and trouble. As the recovery of it was a matter of no small importance, Captain Cook was determined to effect this at any rate; and accordingly he made an expedition across the island, in the course of which he set fire to six or eight houses, and burned a number of war canoes. At last, in consequence of a peremptory message to Maheine, the chief of Eimeo, that not a single canoe should be left in the country, or an end be put to the contest, unless the animal in his possession should be restored, the goat was brought back. This quarrel was as much regretted on the part of the captain, as it could be on that of the natives. It grieved him to reflect, that, after refusing the pressing solicitations of his friends at Otaheite to favour their invasion of this island, he should find himself so speedily reduced to the necessity of engaging, in hostilities against its inhabitants; and in such hostilities as, perhaps, had been more injurious to them than Towha's expedition.

On the 11th of October, the ships departed from Eimeo, and the next day arrived at Owharre harbour, on the west side of Huaheine. The grand business of our commander at this island was the settlement of Omai. In order to obtain the consent of the chiefs of the island, the affair was conducted with great solemnity. Omai dressed himself very properly on the occasion; brought with him a suitable assortment of presents; went through a variety of religious ceremonies; and made a speech, the topics of which had been dictated to him by our commander. The result of the negotiation was, that a spot of ground was assigned him, the extent of which, along the shore of the harbour was about two hundred yards; and its depth to the foot of the hill somewhat more. A proportionable part of the hill was included in the grant. This business having been adjusted in a satisfactory manner, the carpenters of both ships were employed in building a small house for Omai, in which he might secure his European commodities. At the same time, some of the English made a garden for his use, in which they planted shaddocks, vines, pineapples, melons, and the seeds of several other vegetable articles. All of these Captain Cook bad the satisfaction of seeing in a flourishing state before he left the island.

At Huaheine, Omai found a brother, a sister, and a brother-in-law, by whom he was received with great regard and tenderness. But though these people were faithful and affectionate in their attachment to him, the captain discovered, with concern, that they were of too little consequence in the island to be capable of rendering him any positive service. They had not either authority or influence to protect his person or property; and, in such a situation, there was reason to apprehend, that he might be in danger of being stripped of all his possessions, as soon as he should cease to be supported by the power of the English. To prevent this evil, if possible, our commander advised him to conciliate the favour and engage the patronage and protection of two or three of the principal chiefs, by a proper distribution of some of his moveables; with which advice he prudently complied. Captain Cook, however, did not entirely trust to the operations of gratitude, but had recourse to the more forcible motive of intimidation. With this view, he took every opportunity of signifying to the inhabitants, that it was his intention to return to the island again, after being absent the usual time; and that, if he did not find Omai in the same state of security in which he left him, all those whom he should then discover to have been his enemies should feel the weight of his resentment. As the natives had now formed an opinion that their country would be visited by the ships of England at stated periods, there was ground to hope, that this threatening declaration would produce no inconsiderable effect.

When Omai's house was nearly finished, and many of his moveables were carried ashore, a box of toys excited the admiration of the multitude in a much higher degree than articles of a more useful nature. With regard to his pots, kettles, dishes, plates, drinking mugs, glasses, and the whole train of domestic accommodations, which in our estimation are so necessary and important, scarcely any one of his countrymen would condescend to look upon them. Omai himself, being sensible that these pieces of English furniture would be of no great consequence in his present situation, wisely sold a number of them, among the people of the ships, for hatchets, and other iron tools, which had a more intrinsic value in this part of the world, and would give him a more distinguished superiority over those with whom he was to pass the remainder of his days.

Omai's family, when he settled at Huaheine, consisted of eight or ten persons, if that can be called a family to which a single female did not as yet belong, nor was likely to belong, unless its master should become less volatile. There was nothing in his present temper which seemed likely to dispose him to look out for a wife; and, perhaps, it is to be apprehended, that his residence in England had not contributed to improve his taste for the sober felicity of a domestic union with some woman of his own country.

The European weapons of Omai consisted of a musket, bayonet, and carteuch box; a fowling-piece, two pair of pistols, and two or three swords or cutlasses. With the possession of these warlike implements, he was highly delighted; and it was only to gratify his eager desire for them that Captain Cook was induced to make him such presents. The captain would otherwise have thought it happier for him to be without fire-arms, or any European weapons, lest an imprudent use of them (and prudence was not his most distinguished talent) should rather increase his dangers than establish his superiority. Though it was no small satisfaction to our commander to reflect, that he had brought Omai safe back to the very spot from which he had been taken, this satisfaction was, nevertheless, somewhat diminished by the consideration, that his situation might now be less desirable than it was before his connexion with the English. It was to be feared, that the advantages which he had derived from his visit to England would place him in a more hazardous state, with respect to his personal safety.

Whatever faults belonged to Omai's character, they were overbalanced by his good nature and his gratitude. He had a tolerable share of understanding, but it was not accompanied with application and perseverance; so that his knowledge of things was very general, and in most instances imperfect: nor was he a man of much observation. He would not, therefore, be able to introduce many of the arts and customs of England among his countrymen, or greatly to improve those to which they have long been habituated. Captain Cook, however, was confident, that he would endeavour to bring to perfection the fruits and vegetables which had been planted in his garden. This of itself would be no small acquisition to the natives. But the greatest benefit which these islands are likely to receive from Omai's travels, will be in the animals that are left upon them; and which, had it not been for his coming to England, they might probably never have obtained. When these multiply, of which Captain Cook thought there was little reason to doubt, Otaheite and the Society Islands will equal, if not exceed, any country in the known world, for plenty of provisions.

Before our commander sailed from Huaheine, he had the following inscription cut on the outside of Omai's house:

_Georgius Tertius, Rex, 2 Novembris, 1777.
{ Resolution, Jac. Cook, Pr.
Naves {
{ Discovery, Car. Clerk, Pr._

On the same day, Omai took his final leave of our navigators, in doing which, he bade farewell to all the officers in a very affectionate manner. He sustained himself with a manly resolution, till he came to Captain Cook, when his utmost efforts to conceal his tears failed; and he continued to weep all the time that the boat was conveying him to shore. Not again to resume the subject I shall here mention, that when the captain was at Ulietea, a fortnight after this event, Omai sent two men with the satisfactory intelligence, that he remained undisturbed by the people of Huaheine, and that every thing succeeded well with him, excepting in the loss of his goat, which had died in kidding. This intelligence was accompanied with a request, that another goat might be given him, together with two axes. Our commander, esteeming himself happy in having an additional opportunity of serving him, dispatched the messengers back with the axes and a couple of kids, male and female, which were spared for him out of the Discovery.

The fate of the two youths, who had been brought from New Zealand, must not be forgotten. As they were extremely desirous of continuing with our people, Captain Cook would have carried them to England with him, if there had appeared the most distant probability of their ever being restored to their own country. Tiarooa, the eldest of them, was a very well disposed young man, with strong natural sense, and a capacity of receiving any instruction. He seemed to be fully convinced of the inferiority of New Zealand to these islands, and resigned himself, though not without some degree of reluctance, to end his days, in ease and plenty, in Huaheine. The other had formed so strong an attachment to our navigators, that it was necessary to take him out of the ship, and carry him ashore by force. This necessity was the more painful as he was a witty, smart boy: and, on that account, a great favourite on board. Both these youths became a part of Omai's family.

Whilst our voyagers were at Huaheine, the atrocious conduct of one particular thief occasioned so much trouble, that the captain punished him more severely than he had ever done any culprit before. Besides having his head and beard shaved, he ordered both his ears to be cut off, and then dismissed him. It can scarcely be reflected upon without regret, that our commander should have been compelled to such an act of severity.

On the 3rd of November, the ships came to an anchor in the harbour of Ohamaneno, in the island of Ulietea. The observatories being set up on the 6th, and the necessary instruments having been carried on shore, the two following days were employed in making astronomical observations. In the night between the 12th and 13th, John Harrison, a marine, who was sentinel at the observatory, deserted, taking with him his arms and accoutrements. Captain Cook exerted himself on this occasion, with his usual vigour. He went himself in pursuit of the deserter, who, after some evasion on the part of the inhabitants, was surrendered. He was found sitting between two women, with the musket lying before him; and all the defence he was able to make was, that he had been enticed away by the natives. As this account was probably the truth, and as it appeared besides, that he had remained upon his post till within ten minutes of the time when he was to have been relieved, the punishment which the captain inflicted upon him was not very severe.

Some days after, a still more troublesome affair happened, of the same nature. On the morning of the 24th, the captain was informed that a midshipman and a seaman, both belonging to the Discovery, were missing; and it soon appeared, that they had gone away in a canoe in the preceding evening, and had now reached the other end of the island. As the midshipman was known to have expressed a desire of remaining at these islands, it was evident, that he and his companion had gone off with that intention. Though Captain Clerke immediately set out in quest of them with two armed boats, and a party of marines, his expedition proved fruitless, the natives having amused him the whole day with false intelligence. The next morning an account was brought that the deserters were at Otaha. As they were not the only persons in the ships who wished to spend their days at these favourite islands, it became necessary for the purpose of preventing any farther desertion, to recover them at all events. Captain Cook, therefore, in order to convince the inhabitants that he was in earnest, resolved to go after the fugitives himself; to which measure he was determined, from having observed, in repeated instances, that the natives had seldom offered to deceive him with false information.

Agreeably to this resolution, the captain set out, the next morning, with two armed boats, being accompanied by Oree, the chief of Ulietea, and proceeded immediately to Otaha. But when he had gotten to the place where the deserters were expected to be found, he was acquainted that they were gone over to Bolabola. Thither our commander did not think proper to follow them having determined to pursue another measure, which he judged would more effectually answer his purpose. This measure was to put the chief's son, daughter, and son-in-law, into confinement, and to detain them till the fugitives should be restored. As to Oree, he was informed, that he was at liberty to leave the ship whenever he pleased, and to take such methods as he esteemed best calculated to get our two men back; that, if he succeeded, his friends should be released; if not, that Captain Cook was resolved to carry them away with him. The captain added, that the chief's own conduct, as well as that of many of his people, in assisting the runaways to escape, and in enticing others to follow them, would justify any step that could be taken to put a stop to such proceedings. In consequence of this explanation of our commander's views and intentions, Oree zealously exerted himself to recover the deserters, for which purpose he dispatched a canoe to Bolabola, with a message to Opoony, the sovereign of that island, acquainting him with what had happened, and requesting him to seize the two fugitives and send them back. The messenger, who was no less a person than the father of Pootoe, Oree's son-in-law, came, before he set out, to Captain Cook, to receive his commands; which were, not to return without the runaways, and to inform Opoony, that, if they had left Bolabola, he must dispatch canoes in pursuit of them, till they should finally be restored. These vigorous measures were, at length, successful. On the 28th the deserters were brought back; and, as soon as they were on board, the three prisoners were released. Our commander would not have acted so resolutely on the present occasion, had he not been peculiarly solicitous to save the son of a brother officer from being lost to his country.

While this affair was in suspense, some of the natives, from their anxiety on account of the confinement of the chief's relations, had formed a design of a very serious nature; which was no less than to seize upon the persons of Captain Clerke and Captain Cook. With regard to Captain Clerke, they made no secret of speaking of their scheme, the day after it was discovered. But their first and grand plan of operations was to lay hold of Captain Cook. It was his custom to bathe, every evening, in fresh water; in doing which he frequently went alone, and always without arms. As the inhabitants expected him to go, as usual, on the evening of the 26th, they had determined at that time to make him a prisoner. But he had thought it prudent, after confining Oree's family, to avoid putting himself in their power; and had cautioned Captain Clerke, and the officers, not to venture themselves far from the ships. In the course of the afternoon, the chief asked Captain Cook, three several times, if he would not go to the bathing-place; and when he found, at last, that the captain could not be prevailed upon, he went off, with all his people. He was apprehensive, without doubt, that the design was discovered; though no suspicion of it was then entertained by our commander, who imagined, that the natives were seized with some sudden fright, from which, as usual, they would quickly recover. On one occasion, Captain Clerke and Mr. Gore were in particular danger. A party of the inhabitants, armed with clubs, advanced against them; and their safety was principally owing to Captain Clerke's walking with a pistol in his hand, which he once fired. The discovery of the conspiracy, especially so far as respected Captain Clerke and Mr. Gore, was made by a girl, whom one of the officers had brought from Huaheine. On this account, those who were charged with the execution of the design were so greatly offended with her, that they threatened to take away her life, as soon as our navigators should leave the island: but proper methods were pursued for her security. It was a happy circumstance that the affair was brought to light; since such a scheme could not have been carried into effect, without being, in its consequences, productive of much distress and calamity to the natives.

Whilst Captain Cook was at Ulietea, he was visited by his old friend Oree, who, in the former voyages, was chief, or rather regent, of Huaheine. Notwithstanding his now being, in some degree, reduced to the rank of a private person he still preserved his consequence; never appeared without a numerous body of attendants; and was always provided with such presents, as indicated his wealth, and were highly acceptable.

The last of the Society Islands to which our commander sailed was Bolabola, where he arrived on the 8th of December. His chief view in passing over to this island was to procure from its monarch, Opoony, an anchor which Monsieur de Bougainville had lost at Otaheite, and which had been conveyed to Bolabola. It was not from a want of anchors that Captain Cook was desirous of making the purchase, but to convert the iron of which it consisted into a fresh assortment of trading articles, these being now very much exhausted. The captain succeeded in his negotiation, and amply rewarded Opoony for giving up the anchor.

Whilst our commander was at Bolabola, he received an account of those military expeditions of the people of this country, which he had heard much of in each of his three voyages, and which had ended in the complete conquest of Ulietea and Otaha. The Bolabola men, in consequence of these enterprises, where in the highest reputation for their valour; and, indeed, were deemed so invincible, as to be the objects of terror to all the neighbouring islands. It was an addition to their fame, that their country was of such small extent, being not more than eight leagues in compass, and not half so large as Ulietea.

Captain Cook continued to the last his zeal for furnishing the natives of the South Sea with useful animals. At Bolabola, where there was already a ram, which had originally been left by the Spaniards at Otaheite, he carried ashore an ewe, that had been brought from the Cape of Good Hope; and he rejoiced in the prospect of laying a foundation, by this present, for a breed of sheep in the island. He left also at Ulietea, under the care of Oree, an English boar and sow, and two goats. It may, therefore, be regarded as certain, that not only Otaheite, but all the neighbouring islands, will, in a few years, have their race of hogs considerably improved; and it is probable, that they will be stocked with all the valuable animals, which have been transported thither by their European visitors. When this shall be accomplished, no part of the world will equal these islands, in the variety and abundance of the refreshments which they will be able to afford to navigators; nor did the captain know any place that excelled them, even in their present state.

It is an observation of great importance, that the future felicity of the inhabitants of Otaheite, and the Society Islands, will not a little depend on their continuing to be visited from Europe. Our commander could not avoid expressing it as his real opinion, that it would have been far better for these poor people, never to have known our superiority in the accommodations and arts which render life comfortable, than after once knowing it, to be again left and abandoned to their original incapacity of improvement. If the intercourse between them and us should wholly be discontinued, they cannot be restored to that happy mediocrity, in which they lived before they were first discovered. It seemed to Captain Cook, that it was become, in a manner, incumbent upon the Europeans to visit these islands once in three or four years, in order to supply the natives with those conveniences which we have introduced among them, and for which we have given them a predilection. Perhaps they may heavily feel the want of such occasional supplies, when it may be too late to go back to their old and less perfect contrivances; contrivances which they now despise, and which they have discontinued since the introduction of ours. It is, indeed, to be apprehended, that by the time that the iron tools, of which they had become possessed, are worn out, they will have almost lost the knowledge of their own. In this last voyage of our commander, a stone hatchet was as rare a thing among the inhabitants as an iron one was eight years before; and a chisel of bone or stone was not to be seen. Spike nails had succeeded in their place; and of spike nails the natives were weak enough to imagine that they had gotten an inexhaustible store. Of all our commodities, axes, and hatchets remained the most unrivalled; and they must ever be held in the highest estimation through the whole of the islands. Iron tools are so strikingly useful, and are now become so necessary to the comfortable existence of the inhabitants, that, should they cease to receive supplies of them, their situation, in consequence of their neither possessing the materials, nor being trained up to the art of fabricating them, would be rendered completely miserable. It is impossible to reflect upon this representation of things without strong feelings of sympathy and concern. Sincerely is it to be wished, that such may be the order of events, and such the intercourse carried on with the southern islanders, that, instead of finally suffering by their acquaintance with us, they may rise to a higher state of civilization, and permanently enjoy blessings far superior to what they had heretofore known.

Amidst the various subordinate employments which engaged the attention of Captain Cook and his associates, the great objects of their duty were never forgotten. No opportunity was lost of making astronomical and nautical observations; the consequence of which was, that the latitude and longitude of the places where the ships anchored, the variations of the compass, the dips of the needle, and the state of the tides, were ascertained with an accuracy that forms a valuable addition to philosophical science, and will be of eminent service to future navigators.

Our commander was now going to take his final departure from Otaheite and the Society Islands. Frequently as they had been visited, it might have been imagined, that their religious, political, and domestic regulations, manners and customs, must, by this time, be thoroughly understood. A great accession of knowledge was undoubtedly gained in the present voyage; and yet it was confessed, both by Captain Cook and Mr. Anderson, that their accounts of things were still imperfect in various respects; and that they continued strangers to many of the most important institutions which prevail among the natives. There was one part of the character of several of these people, on which the well regulated mind of the captain would not permit him to enlarge. 'Too much,' says he, 'seems to have been already known, and published in our former relations, about some of the modes of life, that made Otaheite, so agreeable an abode to many on board our ships; and if I could now add any finishing strokes to a picture, the outlines of which have been already drawn with sufficient accuracy, I should still have hesitated to make this journal the place for exhibiting a view of licentious manners, which could only serve to disgust those for whose information I write.

From Mr. Anderson's account of the Otaheitans, it appears, that their religious system is extensive, and, in various instances, singular. They do not seem to pay respect to one God as possessing pre-eminence, but believe in a plurality of divinities, all of whom are supposed to be very powerful. In different parts of the island, and in the neighbouring islands, the inhabitants choose those deities for the objects of their worship, who, they think, are most likely to protect them, and to supply all their wants. If, however, they are disappointed in their expectations, they deem it no impiety to change their divinity, by having recourse to another, whom they hope to find more propitious and successful. In general, their notions concerning Deity are extravagantly absurd. With regard to the soul, they believe it, according to Mr. Anderson, to be both immaterial and immortal; but he acknowledges, that they are far from entertaining those sublime expectations of future happiness which the Christian revelation affords, and which even reason alone, duly exercised might teach us to expect.

Although seventeen months had elapsed since Captain Cook's departure from England, during which time he had not, upon the whole, been unprofitably employed, he was sensible that, with respect to the principal object of his instructions, it was now only the commencement of his voyage and that, therefore, his attention was to be called anew to every circumstance which might contribute towards the safety of his people, and the ultimate success of the expedition. Accordingly, he had examined into the state of the provisions, whilst he was at the Society Islands, and, as soon as he had left them, and had gotten beyond the extent of his former discoveries, he ordered a survey to be taken of all the boatswain's and carpenters stores which were in the ships, that he might be fully informed of their quantity and condition; and, by that means, know how to use them to the greatest advantage.

It was on the 8th of December, the very day on which he had touched there, that our commander sailed from Bolabola. In the night between the 22nd and 23rd, he crossed the line, in the longitude of 203░ 15' east; and on the 24th land was discovered, which was found to be one of those low uninhabited islands, that are so frequent in this ocean. Here our voyagers were successful in catching a large quantity of turtle, which supplied them with an agreeable refreshment; and here, on the 28th, an eclipse of the sun was observed by Mr. Bayley, Mr. King, and Captain Cook. On account of the season of the year, the captain called the land where he now was, and which he judged to be about fifteen or twenty leagues in circumference, Christmas Island. By his order, several cocoa-nuts and yams were planted, and some melon seeds sown in proper places; and a bottle was left, containing this inscription:

_Georgius Tertius, Rex. 31 Decembris, 1777.
{ Resolution, Jac. Cook, Pr.
Naves {
{ Discovery. Car. Clerke, Pr._

On the 2nd of January, 1778, the ships resumed their course to the northward, and though several evidences occurred of the vicinity of land, none was discovered till the 18th, when an island made its appearance, bearing north-east by east. Soon after, more land was seen, lying towards the north, and entirely detached from the former. The succeeding day was distinguished by the discovery of a third island in the direction of west-north-west, and as far distant as the eye could reach. In steering towards the second island, our voyagers had some doubt whether the land before them was inhabited; but this matter was speedily cleared up, by the putting off of some canoes from the shore, containing from three to six men each. Upon their approach, the English were agreeably surprised to find, that they spoke the language of Otaheite, and of the other countries which had lately been visited. These people were at first fearful of going on board; but when, on the 20th, some of them took courage, and ventured to do it, they expressed an astonishment, on entering the ship, which Captain Cook had never experienced in the natives of any place during the whole course of his several voyages. Their eyes continually flew from object to object; and, by the wildness of their looks and gestures, they fully manifested their entire ignorance with relation to every thing they saw, and strongly marked to our navigators, that, till this time, they had never been visited by Europeans, or been acquainted with any of our commodities, excepting iron. Even with respect to iron, it was evident that they had only heard of it, or at most, had known it in some small quantity, brought to them at a distant period; for all they understood concerning it was, that it was a substance much better adapted to the purpose of cutting, or boring of holes, than any thing their own country produced. Their ceremonies on entering the ship, their gestures and motions, and their manner of singing, were similar to those which our voyagers had been accustomed to see in the places lately visited. There was, likewise, a farther circumstance in which these people perfectly resembled the other islanders: and that was, in their endeavouring to steal whatever came within their reach; or rather to take it openly, as what would either not be resented or not hindered. The English soon convinced them of their mistake, by keeping such a watchful eye over them that they afterwards were obliged to be less active in appropriating to themselves every object that struck upon their fancy and excited the desire of possession.

One order given by Captain Cook at this island was that none of the boats' crews should be permitted to go on shore; the reason of which was, that he might do every thing in his power to prevent the importation of a fatal disease, which unhappily had already been communicated in other places. With the same view, he directed that all female visitors should be excluded from the ships. Another necessary precaution, taken by the captain, was a strict injunction, that no person known to be capable of propagating disorder should be sent upon duty out of the vessels. Thus zealous was the humanity of our commander, to prevent an irreparable injury from being done to the natives. There are men who glory in their shame, and who do not care how much evil they communicate. Of this there was an instance at Tongataboo, in the gunner of the Discovery, who had been stationed on shore to manage the trade for that ship; and who, though he was well acquainted with his own situation, continued to have connexions with different women. His companions expostulated with him without effect, till Captain Clerke, hearing of the dangerous irregularity of his conduct ordered him on board. If I knew the rascal's name, I would hang it up, as far as lies in my power, to everlasting infamy.

Mr. Williamson being sent with the boats to search for water, and attempting to land, the inhabitants came down in such numbers, and were so violent in their endeavours to seize upon the oars, muskets, and, in short, every thing they could lay hold of, that he was obliged to fire, by which one man was killed. This unhappy circumstance was not known to Captain Cook till after he had left the island; so that all his measures were directed as if nothing of the kind had happened.

When the ships were brought to an anchor, our commander went on shore; and, at the very instant of his doing it, the collected body of the natives all fell flat upon their faces, and continued in that humble posture, till, by expressive signs, he prevailed upon them to rise. Other ceremonies followed; and the next day a trade was set on foot for hogs and potatoes, which the people of the island gave in exchange for nails and pieces of iron, formed into something like chisels. So far was any obstruction from being met with in watering, that, on the contrary, the inhabitants assisted our men in rolling the casks to and from the pool; and readily performed whatever was required.

Affairs thus going on to the captain's satisfaction, he made an excursion into the country, accompanied by Mr. Anderson and Mr. Webber, the former of whom was as well qualified to describe with the pen, as the latter was to represent with his pencil, whatever might occur worthy of observation. In this excursion, the gentlemen, among other objects that called for their attention, found a _Morai_. On the return of our commander, he had the pleasure of finding that a brisk trade for pigs, fowls, and roots was carrying on with the greatest good order, and without any attempt to cheat, or steal, on the part of the natives. The rapacious disposition they at first displayed was entirely corrected by their conviction that it could not be exercised with impunity. Among the articles which they brought to barter, the most remarkable was a particular sort of cloak and cap, that might be reckoned elegant, even in countries where dress is eminently the object of attention. The cloak was richly adorned with red and yellow feathers, which in themselves were highly beautiful, and the newness and freshness of which added not a little to their beauty.

On the 22nd, a circumstance occurred, which gave the English room to suspect that the people of the island are eaters of human flesh. Not, however, to rest the belief of the existence of so horrid a practice on the foundation of suspicion only, Captain Cook was anxious to inquire into the truth of the fact, the result of which was its being fully confirmed. An old man, in particular, who was asked upon the subject, answered in the affirmative, and seemed to laugh at the simplicity of such a question. His answer was equally affirmative on a repetition of the inquiry; and he added, that the flesh of men was excellent food, or, as he expressed it, "savoury eating". It is understood that enemies slain in battle are the sole objects of this abominable custom.

The island, at which our voyagers had now touched, was called Atooi by the natives. Near it was another island, named Oneeheow, where our commander came to an anchor on the 29th of the month. The inhabitants were found to resemble those of Atooi in their dispositions, manners, and customs; and proofs, too convincing, appeared that the horrid banquet of human flesh is here as much relished, amidst plenty, as it is in New Zealand. From a desire of benefiting these people by furnishing them with additional articles of food, the captain left them a ram goat and two ewes, a boar and sow pig of the English breed, and the seeds of melons, pumpkins and onions. These benevolent presents would have been made to Atooi, the larger island, had not our navigators been unexpectedly driven from it by stress of weather. Though the soil of Oneeheow seemed in general poor it was observable, that the ground was covered with shrubs and plants, some of which perfumed the air with a more delicious fragrancy than what Captain Cook had met with at any other of the countries that had been visited by him in this part of the world.

It is a curious circumstance, with regard to the islands in the Pacific Ocean which the late European voyages have added to the geography of the globe, that they have generally been found to lie in groups, or clusters. The single intermediate islands, which have as yet been discovered, are few in proportion to the others; though there are probably many more of them that are still unknown, and may serve as steps, by which the several clusters are to some degree connected together. Of the archipelago now first visited, there were five only with which our commander became at this time acquainted. The names of these, as given by the natives, were Woahoo, Atooi, Oneeheow, Oreehoua, and Tahoora. To the whole group Captain Cook gave the appellation of Sandwich Islands, in honour of his great friend and patron, the Earl of Sandwich.

Concerning the island of Atooi, which is the largest of the five, and which was the principal scene of the captain's operations, he collected, in conjunction with Mr. Anderson, a considerable degree of information. The land, as to its general appearance, does not in the least resemble any of the islands that our voyagers had hitherto visited within the tropic, on the south side of the equator; excepting so far as regards its hills near the centre, which slope gently towards the sea. Hogs, dogs, and fowls, were the only tame or domestic animals that were to be found; and these were of the same kind with those which exist in the countries of the South Pacific Ocean. Among the inhabitants (who are of a middle stature, and firmly made), there is a more remarkable equality in the size, colour, and figure of both sexes, than our commander had observed in most other places. They appeared to be blessed with a frank and cheerful disposition; and, in Captain Cook's opinion, they are equally free from the fickle levity which distinguishes the natives of Otaheite, and the sedate cast discernable amongst many of those at Tongataboo. It is a very pleasing circumstance in their character, that they pay a particular attention to their women, and readily lend assistance to their wives in the tender offices of maternal duty. On all occasions, they seemed to be deeply impressed with a consciousness of their own inferiority; being alike strangers to the preposterous pride of the more polished Japanese, and of the ruder Greenlander. Contrary to the general practice of the countries that had hitherto been discovered in the Pacific Ocean, the people of the Sandwich Islands have not their ears perforated; nor have they the least idea of wearing ornaments in them, though, in other respects, they are sufficiently fond of adorning their persons. In every thing manufactured by them, there is an uncommon degree of neatness and ingenuity; and the elegant form and polish of some of their fishing-hooks could not be exceeded by any European artist, even if he should add all his knowledge in design to the number and convenience of his tools. From what was seen of their agriculture, sufficient proofs were afforded, that they are not novices in that art; and that the quantity and goodness of their vegetable productions may as much be attributed to skilful culture, as to natural fertility of soil. Amidst all the resemblances between the natives of Atooi, and those of Otaheite, the coincidence of their languages was the most striking; being almost word for word the same. Had the Sandwich Islands been discovered by the Spaniards at an early period, they would undoubtedly have taken advantage of so excellent a situation, and have made use of them as refreshing places, for their ships, which sail annually from Acapulca for Manilla. Happy, too, would it have been for Lord Anson, if he had known that there existed a group of islands, half way between America and Tinian, where all his wants could effectually have been supplied, and the different hardships to which he was exposed have been avoided.

On the second of February, our navigators pursued their course to the northward, in doing which the incidents they met with were almost entirely of a nautical kind. The long looked-for coast of New Albion was seen on the 7th of March, the ships being then in the latitude of 44░ 33' north, and in the longitude of 235░ 20' east. As the vessels ranged along the west side of America, Captain Cook gave names to several capes and headlands which appeared in sight. At length, on the 29th, the captain came to an anchor at an inlet, where the appearance of the country differed much from what had been seen before; being full of mountains, the summits of which were covered with snow; while the valleys between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, were covered, to a considerable breadth, was high, straight trees, which formed a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. It was immediately found, that the coast was inhabited; and there soon came off to the Resolution three canoes, containing eighteen of the natives; who could not, however, be prevailed upon to venture themselves on board. Notwithstanding this, they displayed a peaceable disposition; shewed great readiness to part with any thing they had, in exchange for what was offered them; and expressed a stronger desire for iron than for any other of our commercial articles, appearing to be perfectly acquainted with the use of that metal. From these favourable circumstances, our voyagers had reason to hope, that they should find this a comfortable station to supply all their wants, and to make them forget the hardships and delays which they had experienced during a constant succession of adverse winds, and boisterous weather, almost ever since their arrival upon the coast of America.

The ships having happily found an excellent inlet, the coasts of which appeared to be inhabited by a race of people who were disposed to maintain a friendly intercourse with strangers, Captain Cook's first object was to search for a commodious harbour; and he had little trouble in discovering what he wanted. A trade having immediately commenced, the articles which the inhabitants offered for sale were the skins of various animals, such as bears, wolves, foxes, deer, racoons, polecats, martins; and, in particular, of the sea-otters. To these were added, besides the skins in their native shape, garments made of them; another sort of clothing, formed from the bark of a tree; and various different pieces of workmanship. But of all the articles brought to market, the most extraordinary were human skulls, and hands not yet quite stripped of their flesh; some of which had evident marks of their having been upon the fire. The things, which the natives took in exchange for their commodities, were knives, chisels, pieces of iron and tin, nails, looking-glasses, buttons, or any kind of metal. Glass beads did not strike their imaginations; and cloth of every sort they rejected. Though commerce, in general, was carried on with mutual honesty, there were some among these people who were as much inclined to thievery as the islanders in the Southern Ocean. They were, at the same time, far more dangerous thieves; for, possessing sharp iron instruments, they could cut a hook from a tackle, or any other piece of iron from a rope, the moment that the backs of the English were turned. The dexterity with which they conducted their operations of this nature, frequently eluded the most cautious vigilance. Some slighter instances of deception, in the way of traffic, Captain Cook thought it better to bear with, than to make them the foundation of a quarrel; and to this he was the rather determined, as the English articles were now reduced to objects of a trifling nature. In the progress of the commerce, the natives would deal for nothing but metal; and, at length, brass was so eagerly sought for, in preference to iron, that, before our navigators quitted the place, scarcely a bit of it was left in the ships, excepting what belonged to the necessary instruments. Whole suits of clothes were stripped of every button: bureaus were deprived of their furniture; copper kettles, tin canisters, candlesticks, and whatever of the like kind could be found, all went to wreck; so that these Americans became possessors of a greater medley and variety of things from our people, than any other nation that had been visited in the course of the voyage.

Of all the uncivilized tribes which our commander had met with in his several navigations, he never found any who had such strict notions of their having a right to the exclusive property of everything which their country produces, as the inhabitants of the sound where he was now stationed. At first, they wanted to be paid for the wood and water that were carried on board; and had the captain been upon the spot, when these demands were made, he would certainly have complied with them; but the workmen, in his absence, maintained a different opinion, and refused to submit to any such claims. When some grass, which appeared to be of no use to the natives, was wanted to be cut, as food for the few goats and sheep which still remained on board, they insisted that it should be purchased, and were very unreasonable in their terms; notwithstanding which Captain Cook consented to gratify them, as far as he was able. It was always a sacred rule with him, never to take any of the property of the people whom he visited, without making them an ample compensation.

The grand operation of our navigators, to their present station, was to put the ships into a complete repair for the prosecution of the expedition. While this business was carrying on, our commander took the opportunity of examining every part of the sound; in the course of which he gained a farther knowledge of the inhabitants, who in general, received him with great civility. In one instance he met with a surly chief, who could not be softened with presents, though he condesended to accept of them. The females of the place over which he presided shewed a more agreeable disposition; for some of the young women expeditiously dressed themselves in their best apparel, and, assembling in a body, welcomed the English to their village, by joining in a song, which was far from being harsh or dissagreeable. On another occasion, the captain was entertained with singing. Being visited by a number of strangers, on the 22nd of April, as they advanced towards the ships, they all stood up in their canoes, and began to sing. Some of their songs, in which the whole body joined, were in a slow, and others in a quicker time; and their notes were accompanied with the most regular motions of their hands; or with beating in concert, with their paddles, on the sides of their canoes; to which were added other very expressive gestures. At the end of each song, they continued silent for a few moments, and then began again, sometimes pronouncing the word _Hooee!_ forcibly as a chorus.

Among the natives of the country, there was one chief who attached himself to our commander in a particular manner. Captain Cook having, at parting, bestowed upon him a small present, received, in return, a beaver skin, of much greater value. This called upon the captain to make some addition to his present, with which the chief was so much pleased, that he insisted on our commander's acceptance of the beaver-skin cloak which he then wore; and of which he was particularly fond. Admiring this instance of generosity, and desirous that he should not suffer by his friendship, the captain gave him a new broad-sword, with a brass hilt; the possession of which rendered him completely happy.

On Captain Cook's first arrival in this inlet, he had honoured it with the name of King George's Sound; but he afterward found that it is called Nootka by the natives. During his stay in the place, he displayed his usual sagacity and diligence, in conjunction with Mr. Anderson, in collecting every thing that could be learned concerning the neighbouring country and its inhabitants; and the account is interesting, as it exhibits a picture of productions, people, and manners very different from what had occurred in the Southern Ocean. I can only, as on former occasions, slightly advert to a few of the more leading circumstances. The climate, so far as our navigators had experience of it, was found to be in an eminent degree milder than that on the east coast of America, in the same parallel of latitude: and it was remarkable, that the thermometer, even in the night, never fell lower than 42░; while in the day it frequently rose to 60░. With regard to trees, those of which the woods are chiefly composed, are the Canadian pine, the white cypress and the wild pine, with two or three different sorts of pine that are less common. In the other vegetable productions there appeared but little variety: but it is to be considered, that, at so early a season, several might not yet have sprung up; and that many more might be concealed from our voyagers, in consequence of the narrow sphere of their researches. Of the land animals, the most common were bears, deer, foxes, and wolves. The sea animals, which were seen off the coast, were whales, porpoises, and seals. Birds, in general, are not only rare as to the different species, but very scarce as to numbers; and the few which are to be met with are so shy, that, in all probability, they are continually harassed by the natives; either to eat them as food, or to get possession of their feathers, which are used as ornaments. Fish are more plentiful in quantity than birds, but were not found in any great variety; and yet, from several circumstances, there was reason to believe, that the variety is considerably increased at certain seasons. The only animals that were observed of the reptile kind were snakes and water-lizards; but the insect tribe seemed to be more numerous.

With respect to the inhabitants of the country, their persons are generally under the common stature; but not slender in proportion, being usually pretty full or plump, though without being muscular. From their bringing to sale human skulls and bones, it may justly be inferred, that they treat their enemies with a degree of brutal cruelty; notwithstanding which, it does not follow, that they are to be reproached with any charge of peculiar inhumanity: for the circumstance now mentioned only marks a general agreement of character with that of almost every tribe of uncivilized men, in every age, and in every part of the globe. Our navigators had no reason to complain of the disposition of the natives, who appeared to be a docile courteous, good-natured people; rather phlegmatic in the usual cast of their tempers, but quick in resenting what they apprehend to be an injury, and easily permitting their anger to subside. Their other passions, and especially their curiosity, seemed to lie in some measure dormant; one cause of which may be found in the indolence that, for the most part, is prevalent amongst them. The chief employments of the men are those of fishing, and of killing land or sea animals, for the sustenance of their families; while the women are occupied in manufacturing their flaxen or woollen garments, or in other domestic offices. It must be mentioned to their honour, that they were always properly clothed, and behaved with the utmost decorum; justly deserving all commendation, for a bashfulness and modesty becoming their sex: and this was the more meritorious in them, as the male inhabitants discovered no sense of shame. In their manufactures and mechanic arts, these people have arrived to a greater degree of extent and ingenuity, both with regard to the design and the execution, than could have been expected from their natural disposition, and the little progress to which they have arrived in general civilization. Their dexterity, in particular, with respect to works of wood, must principally be ascribe to the assistance they receive from iron tools, which are in universal use amongst them, and in the application of which they are very dexterous. Whence they have derived their knowledge of iron was a matter of speculation with Captain Cook. The most probable opinion is, that this and other metals may have been introduced by way of Hudson's Bay and Canada, and thus successively have been conveyed across the continent, from tribe to tribe. Nor is it unreasonable to suppose, that those metals may sometimes be brought, in the same manner, from the north-western parts of Mexico.[11] The language of Nootka is by no means harsh or disagreeable; for it abounds, upon the whole, rather with what may be called labial and dental, than with guttural sounds. A large vocabulary of it was collected by Mr. Anderson.

[Footnote 11: Two silver spoons of a construction similar to what
may sometimes be seen in Flemish pictures of still life, were
procured here by Mr. Gore, who bought them from a native, who wore
them, tied together with a leather thong, as an ornament round his
neck. Mr. Gore gave the spoons to Sir Joseph Banks.]

Whilst Captain Cook was at Nootka Sound, great attention was paid by him, as usual, to astronomical and nautical subjects. The observations which he had an opportunity of making were, indeed, so numerous, as to form a very considerable addition to geographical and philosophical science.

On the 26th, the repairs of the ships having been completed, every thing was ready for the captain's departure. When, in the afternoon of that day, the vessels were upon the point of sailing, the mercury in the barometer fell unusually low; and there was every other presage of an approaching storm, which might reasonably be expected to come from the southward. This circumstance induced our commander in some degree to hesitate, and especially as night was at hand, whether he should venture to sail, or wait till the next morning. But his anxious impatience to proceed upon the voyage, and the fear of losing the present opportunity of getting out of the sound, made a greater impression upon his mind, than any apprehension of immediate danger. He determined, therefore, to put to sea at all events; and accordingly carried his design into execution that evening. He was not deceived in his expectations of a storm. Scarcely were the vessels out of the sound before the wind increased to a strong gale, with squalls and rain, accompanied by so dark a sky, that the length of the ships could not be seen. Happily the wind took a direction that blew our navigators from the coast; and though, on the 27th, the tempest rose to a perfect hurricane, and the Resolution sprang a leak, no material damage ensued.

In the prosecution of the voyage to the north, and back again to the Sandwich Islands, the facts that occurred were chiefly of a nautical kind. Minutely to record these is not the purpose of the present work, and indeed would extend it to an unreasonable length.

From this long and important navigation, I can only select some few incidents, that may be accommodated to the taste and expectations of the generality of readers.

One thing it is not improper here to observe; which is, that the captain, in his passage along the coast of America, kept at a distance from that coast, whenever the wind blew strongly upon it, and sailed on till he could approach it again with safety. Hence several great gaps were left unexplored, and particularly between the latitudes of 50░ and 55░. The exact situation, for instance, of the supposed Straits of Anian was not ascertained. Every one who is acquainted with the character of our commander will be sensible, that if he had lived to return again to the north in 1779. he would have endeavoured to explore the parts which had been left unexamined.

The first place at which Captain Cook landed, after his departure from Nootka Sound, was at an island, of eleven or twelve leagues in length, the south-west point of which lies in the latitude of 59░ 49' north, and the longitude of 216░ 58' east. Here, on the 11th of May, at the foot of a tree, on a little eminence not far from the shore, he left a bottle, with a paper in it, on which were inscribed the names of the ships, and the date of the discovery. Together with the bottle, he enclosed two silver twopenny pieces of his majesty's coin, which had been struck in 1772. These, with many others, had been given him by the Reverend Dr. Kaye, the present Dean of Lincoln; and our commander, as a mark of his esteem and regard for that learned and respectable gentleman, named the island, after him, Kaye's island.

At an inlet, where the ships came to an anchor, on the 12th, and to which Captain Cook gave the appellation of Prince William's Sound, he had an opportunity not only of stopping the leak which the Resolution had sprung in the late storm, and of prosecuting his nautical and geographical discoveries, but of making considerable additions to his knowledge of the inhabitants of the American coast. From every observation which was made concerning the persons of the natives of this part of the coast, it appeared, that they had a striking resemblance to those of the Esquimaux and Greenlanders. Their canoes, their weapons, and their instruments for fishing and hunting, are likewise exactly the same, in point of materials and construction, that are used in Greenland. The animals in the neighbourhood of Prince William's Sound are, in general, similar to those which are found at Nootka. One of the most beautiful skins here offered for sale, was, however, that of a small animal, which seemed to be peculiar to the place. Mr. Anderson was inclined to think that it is the animal which is described by Mr. Pennant, under the name of the _casan_ marmot. Among the birds seen in this country, were the white-headed eagle; the shag; and the _alcedo_, or great king-fisher, the colours of which were very fine and bright. The humming-bird, also, came frequently and flew about the ship, while at anchor; but it can scarcely be supposed, that it can be able to subsist here during the severity of winter. Waterfowl, upon the whole, are in considerable plenty; and there is a species of diver, about the size of a partridge, which seems peculiar to the place. Torsk and halibut were almost the only kinds of fish that were obtained by our voyagers. Vegetables, of any sort, were few in number; and the trees were chiefly the Canadian and spruce pine, some of which were of a considerable height and thickness. The beads and iron, that were found among the people of the coast, must undoubtedly have been derived from some civilized nation; and yet there was ample reason to believe that our English navigators were the first Europeans with whom the natives had ever held a direct communication. From what quarter, then, had they gotten our manufactures? Most probably, through the intervention of the more inland tribes, from Hudson's Bay, or the settlements on the Canadian lakes. This, indeed, must certainly have been the case, if iron was known, amongst the inhabitants of this part of the American coast, prior to the discovery of it by the Russians, and before there was any traffic with them carried on from Kamtschatka. From what was seen of Prince William's Sound, Captain Cook judged that it occupied, at least, a degree and a half of latitude, and two of longitude, exclusively of the arms or branches, the extent of which is not known.

Some days after leaving this sound our navigators came to an inlet, from which great things were expected. Hopes were strongly entertained, that it would be found to communicate either with the sea to the north, or with Baffin's or Hudson's Bay to the east; and accordingly it became the object of very accurate and serious examination. The captain was soon persuaded that the expectations formed from it were groundless; notwithstanding which, he persisted in the search of a passage, more, indeed, to satisfy other people, than to confirm his own opinion. In consequence of a complete investigation of the inlet, indubitable marks occurred of its being a river. This river, without seeing the least appearance of its source, was traced by our voyagers, as high as the latitude of 61░ 34', and the longitude of 210░, being seventy leagues from its entrance. During the course of the navigation, on the first of June, Lieutenant King was ordered on shore, to display the royal flag, and to take possession of the country in his majesty's name. The lieutenant, at the same time, buried in the ground a bottle, containing some pieces of English coin, of the year 1772, and a paper, on which the names of the ships were inscribed, and the date of the present discovery. The great river now discovered, promises to vie with the most considerable ones already known; and, by itself and its branches, lies open to a very extensive inland communication. If, therefore, the knowledge of it should be of future service, the time which was spent in exploring it ought the less to be regretted. But to Captain Cook, who had a much greater object in view, the delay that was hence occasioned was a real loss, because the season was advancing apace. It was, however, a satisfaction to him to reflect, that if he had not examined this very considerable inlet, it would have been assumed, by speculative fabricators of geography, as a fact, that there was a passage through it to the North Sea, or to Baffin's or Hudson's Bay. Perhaps, too, it would have been marked, on future maps of the world, with greater precision, and more, certain signs of reality, than the invisible, because imaginary, Straits of de Fuca and de Fonte. In describing the inlet, our commander had left a blank which was not filled up with any particular name; and, therefore, the Earl of Sandwich directed, with the greatest propriety, that it should be called Cook's River.

All the natives who were met with, during the examination of this river, appeared, from every mark of resemblance, to be of the same nation with the inhabitants of Prince Willam's Sound; but from the people of Nootka, or King George's Sound, they essentially differed, both in their persons and their language. The only things which were seen among them, that were not of their own manufacture, were a few glass beads, the iron points of their spears, and knives of the same metal. Whencesoever these articles might be derived, it was evident, that they had never had any immediate intercourse with the Russians; since, if that had been the case, our voyagers would scarcely have found them clothed in such valuable skins as those of the sea-otter. A very beneficial fur-trade might undoubtedly be carried on with the inhabitants of this vast coast. But without a practicable northern passage, the situation is too remote to render it probable, that Great Britain should hence ever derive any material advantage; though it is impossible to say with certainty, how far the spirit of commerce, for which the English nation is so eminently distinguished, may extend. The most valuable, or rather the only valuable skins, which Captain Cook saw on the west side of America, were those of the sea-otter; for as to the skins of all the other animals of the country, and especially of the foxes and martins, they seemed to be of an inferior quality.

It was on the 6th of June that our navigators got clear of Cook's River. Proceeding in the course of their discoveries, when they were sailing, on the 19th, amidst the group of islands, which were called, by Beering, Schumagin's Islands, Captain Clerke fired three guns, and brought to, expressing by the proper signals, that he wished to speak with Captain Cook. At this our commander was not a little alarmed; and as no apparent danger had been remarked in the passage through the channel where the vessels now were, it was apprehended, that some accident, such as springing a leak, must have happened. On Captain Clerke's coming on board the Resolution, he related that several of the natives had followed his ship; that one of them had made many signs, taking off his cap, and bowing after the manner of Europeans; and that, at length, he had fastened to a rope, which was handed down to him, a small thin wooden case or box. Having delivered his parcel safe, and spoken something, accompanied with more signs, the canoes dropped astern, and left the Discovery. On opening the box, a piece of paper was found, folded up carefully, upon which something was written, that was reasonably supposed to be in the Russian language. To the paper was prefixed the date 1778, and in the body of the note there was a reference to the year 1776. Although no person on board was learned enough to decipher the alphabet of the writer, his numerals sufficiently marked, that others had preceded our voyagers in visiting this dreary part of the globe; and the prospect of soon meeting with men, who were united to them in ties somewhat closer than those of our common nature, and who were not strangers to the arts and commerce of civilized life, could not but afford a sensible satisfaction to people who, for such a length of time, had been conversant with the savages of the Pacific Ocean, and of the North American continent. Captain Clerke was, at first, of opinion that some Russians had been shipwrecked; but no such idea occurred to Captain Cook. He rather thought, that the paper contained a note of information, left by some Russian traders, to be delivered to the next of their countrymen who should arrive; and that the natives, seeing the English pass, and supposing them to be Russians, had resolved to bring off the note. Accordingly, our commander pursued his voyage, without inquiring farther into the matter.

On the 21st, amongst some hills, on the main land, that towered above the clouds to a most amazing height, one was discovered to have a volcano, which continually threw up vast columns of black smoke. It doth not stand far from the coast; and it lies in the latitude of 54░ 48', and the longitude of 195░ 45'. The mountain was rendered remarkable by its figure, which is a complete cone, and the volcano is at the very summit. While, in the afternoon of the same day, during a calm of three hours the English were fishing with great success for halibuts, a small canoe, conducted by one man, came to them from an island in the neighbourhood. On approaching the ship, he took off his cap, and bowed, as the native had done, who had visited the Discovery a day or two before. From the acquired politeness of these people, as well as from the note already mentioned, it was evident that the Russians must have a communication and traffic with them; and of this a fresh proof occurred in the present visitor; for he wore a pair of green cloth breeches, and a jacket of black cloth, or stuff, under the gut-shirt or frock of his own country.

In the prosecution of the voyage, on the 26th, there was so thick a fog, that our navigators could not see a hundred yards before them; notwithstanding which, as the weather was moderate, the captain did not intermit his course. At length, however, being alarmed at the sound of breakers on one side of the ship, he immediately brought her to, and came to anchor; and the Discovery, by his order, did the same. A few hours after, the fog having in some degree cleared away, it appeared, that both the vessels had escaped a very imminent danger. Providence, in the dark, had conducted them between rocks which our commander would not have ventured to pass through in a clear day, and had conveyed them to an anchoring place, as good as he could possibly have fixed upon, had the choice been entirely at his option.

On the 27th, our voyagers reached an island, that is known by the name of Oonalashka; the inhabitants of which behaved with a degree of politeness uncommon to savage tribes. A young man, who had overset his canoe, being obliged by this accident to come on board the ship, went down into Captain Cook's cabin, upon the first invitation, without expressing the least reluctance or uneasiness. His own clothes being wet, the captain gave him others, in which he dressed himself with as much ease as any Englishman could have done. From the behaviour of this youth, and that of some of the rest of the natives, it was evident, that these people were no strangers to Europeans, and to several of their customs. There was something, however, in the English ships, that greatly excited their attention; for such as could not come off in canoes, assembled on the neighbouring hills to look at them. In one instance it was apparent, that the inhabitants were so far from having made any progress in politeness, that they were still immersed in the most savage manners. For as our commander was walking along the shore, on the 29th, he met with a group of them, of both sexes, who were seated on the grass, at a repast, consisting of raw fish, which they seemed to eat with as much relish, as persons in civilized life would experience from a turbot, served up in the richest sauce. Soon after the vessels had come to an anchor at Oonalashka, a native of the island brought on board such another note as had been given to Captain Clerke. He presented it to Captain Cook; but, as it was written in the Russian language, and could be of no use to the English, though it might be of consequence to others, the captain returned it to the bearer, and dismissed him with a few presents; for which he expressed his thanks by making several low bows as he retired.

On the 2nd of July, our voyagers put to sea from Oonalashka; and, pursuing their course of navigation and discovery, came, on the 16th, within sight of a promontory, near which our commander ordered Lieutenant Williamson to land, that he might see what direction the coast took beyond it, and what the country produced. Accordingly, Mr. Williamson went on shore, and reported, on his return, that, having landed on the point, and climbed the highest hill, he found that the farthest part of the coast in sight bore nearly north. At the same time, he took possession of the country in his majesty's name, and left a bottle, in which was enclosed a piece of paper, containing an inscription of the names of the ships, together with the date of the discovery. To the promontory he gave the name of Cape Newenham. The land, as far as Mr. Williamson could see, produces neither tree nor shrub; but the lower grounds were not destitute of grass, and of some other plants, very few of which were in flower.

When our navigators, on the 3rd of August, had advanced to the latitude of 62░ 34', a great loss was sustained by them in the death of Mr. Anderson, the surgeon of the Resolution, who had been lingering under a consumption for more than twelve months. He was a young man of a cultivated understanding and agreeable manners, and was well skilled in his own profession; besides which, he had acquired a considerable degree of knowledge in other branches of science. How useful an assistant he was to Captain Cook, hath often appeared in the present narrative. Had his life been spared, the public would undoubtedly have received from him such communications, on various parts of the natural history of the several places that had been visited, as would justly have entitled him to very high commendation. The proofs of his abilities that now remain, will hand down the name of Anderson, in conjunction with that of Cook, to posterity. Soon after he had breathed his last, land having been seen at a distance, which was supposed to be an island, our commander honoured it with the appellation of Anderson's Island. The next day he removed Mr. Law, the surgeon of the Discovery, into the Resolution, and appointed Mr. Samwell, the surgeon's first mate of the Resolution, to be surgeon of the Discovery.

On the 9th, Captain Cook came to an anchor under a point of land, to which he gave the name of Cape Prince of Wales, and which is remarkable by being the most western extremity of America hitherto explored. This extremity is distant from the eastern Cape of Siberia only thirteen leagues: and thus our commander had the glory of ascertaining the vicinity of the two continents, which had only been conjectured from the reports of the neighbouring Asiatic inhabitants, and the imperfect observations of the Russian navigators.

Resuming his course on the 10th, Captain Cook anchored in a bay, the land of which was at first supposed to be part of the island of Alaschka, which is laid down in Mr. Staehlin's map. But, from the figure of the coast, from the situation of the opposite shore of America, and from the longitude, the captain soon began to think, that it was more probably the country of the Tschutski, on the eastern extremity of Asia, which had been explored by Beering in 1728. In the result it appeared, that this was in fact the case. Our commander became fully satisfied in the farther progress of his voyage, that Mr. Staehlin's map must be erroneous; and he had the honour of restoring the American continent to that space which the geographer now mentioned had occupied with his imaginary island of Alaschka.

From the Bay of St. Lawrence, belonging to the country of the Tschutski, our navigators steered, on the 11th, to the east, in order to get nearer to the coast of America. After that, proceeding to the north, they reached, on the 17th, the latitude of 70░ 33'. On this day, a brightness was perceived in the northern horizon, like that which is reflected from ice, and is commonly called the _blink_. This was at first but little noticed, from a supposition that there was no probability of meeting with ice so soon: and yet the sharpness of the air, and the gloominess of the weather, had, for two or three days past, seemed to indicate a sudden change. In about an hour's time, the sight of a large field of ice left Captain Cook no longer in doubt with regard to the cause of the brightness of the horizon. The ships, in the same afternoon, being then in the latitude of 70░ 41', were close to the edge of the ice, and not able to stand on any farther. On the 18th, when the vessels were in the latitude of 70░ 44', the ice on the side of them was as compact as a wall, and was judged to be at least ten or twelve feet in height. Farther to the north, it appeared to be much higher. Its surface was extremely rugged, and in different places there were seen upon it pools of water. A prodigious number of sea-horses lay upon the ice; and some of them, on the nineteenth, were procured for food, there being at this time a want of fresh provisions. When the animals were brought to the vessels, it was no small disappointment to many of the seamen, who had feasted their eyes for several days with the prospect of eating them, to find that they were not sea-cows, as they had supposed, but sea-horses. The disappointment would not have been occasioned, or the difference known, had there not happened to be one or two sailors on board who had been in Greenland, and who declared what these animals were, and that it never was customary to eat of them. Such, however, was the anxiety for a change of diet, as to overcome this prejudice. Our voyagers lived upon the sea-horses as long as they lasted; and there were few who did not prefer them to the salt meat.

Captain Cook continued, to the 29th, to traverse the Icy Sea beyond Beering's Strait, in various directions, and through numberless obstructions and difficulties. Every day the ice increased, so as to preclude all hopes of attaining, at least during the present year the grand object of the voyage. Indeed, the season was now so far advanced, and the time in which the frost was expected to set in was so near at hand, that it would have been totally inconsistent with prudence, to have made any farther attempts, till the next summer, at finding a passage into the Atlantic. The attention, therefore, of our commander was now directed to other important and necessary concerns. It was of great consequence to meet with a place where our navigators might be supplied with wood and water. But the point which principally occupied the captain's thoughts was, how he should spend the winter, so as to make some improvements in geography and navigation, and, at the same time, to be in a condition to return to the north, in farther search of a passage, in the ensuing summer.

Before Captain Cook proceeded far to the south, he employed a considerable time in examining the sea and coasts in the neighbourhood of Beering's Strait, both on the side of Asia and America. In this examination, he ascertained the accuracy of Beering, so far as he went; demonstrated the errors with which Staehlin's map of the New Northern Archipelago abounds; and made large additions to the geographical knowledge of this part of the world. 'It reflects,' as Mr. Coxe justly observes, 'the highest honour even on the British name, that our great navigator extended his discoveries much farther in one expedition, and at so great a distance from the point of his departure, than the Russians accomplished in a long series of years, and in parts belonging or contiguous to their own empire.'

On the 2nd of October, our voyagers came within sight of the island of Oonalashka, and anchored the next day in Samganoodha harbour. Here the first concern was to put the ships under the necessary repair; and, while the carpenters were employed in this business, one third of the people had permission, by turns, to go and collect the berries with which the island abounds, and, which, though now beginning to be in a state of decay, did not a little contribute, in conjunction with spruce-beer, effectually to eradicate every seed of the scurvy, that might exist in either of the vessels. Such a supply of fish was likewise procured, as not only served for present consumption, but afforded a quantity to be carried out to sea; so that hence a considerable saving was made of the provisions of the ships, which was at this time an object of no small importance.

Captain Cook, on the 8th, received by the hands of an Oonalashka man, named Derramoushk, a very singular present, which was that of a rye loaf, or rather a pie in the form of a loaf, for it enclosed some salmon, highly seasoned with pepper. This man had the like present for Captain Clerke, and a note for each of the two captains, written in a character which none on board could understand. It was natural to suppose, that the presents came from some Russians in the neighbourhood; and therefore a few bottles of rum, wine, and porter, were sent to these unknown friends in return; it being rightly judged, that such articles would be more acceptable than any thing besides which it was in the power of our navigators to bestow. Corporal Lediard of the marines,[12] an intelligent man, was, at the same time, directed to accompany Derramoushk, for the purpose of gaining farther information; and with orders, if he met with any Russians, that he should endeavour to make them understand that our voyagers were Englishmen, and the friends and allies of their nation. On the 10th the corporal returned with three. Russian seamen, or furriers, who, with several others, resided at Egoochshac, where they had a dwellinghouse, some storehouses,[12] and a sloop of about thirty tons burden. One of these men was either master or mate of this vessel; another of them wrote a very good hand, and was acquainted with figures: and all of them were sensible and well behaved persons, who were ready to give Captain Cook every possible degree of information. The great difficulty, in the reception and communication of intelligence, arose from the want of an interpreter. On the 14th, a Russian landed at Oonalashka, whose name was Erasim Gregorioff Sin Ismyloff, and who was the principal person among his countrymen in this and the neighbouring islands. Besides the intelligence which our commander derived from his conversations with Ismyloff, and which were carried on by signs, assisted by figures and other characters, he obtained from him the sight of two charts, and was permitted to copy them. Both of them were manuscripts, and bore every mark of authenticity. The first included the Penshinskian Sea; the coast of Tartary, down to the latitude of 41░; the Curil Islands and the peninsula of Kamtschatka. But it was the second chart that was the most interesting to Captain Cook; for it comprehended all the discoveries made by the Russians to the eastward of Kamtschatka, towards America; which, however, exclusively of the voyages of Beering and Tscherikoff, amounted to little or nothing. Indeed, all the people with whom the captain conversed at Oonalashka, agreed in assuring him, over and over again, that they knew of no other islands, besides those which were laid down upon this chart; and that no Russian had ever seen any part of the continent of America to the northward, excepting that which lies opposite to the country of the Tschutskis.

[Footnote 12: This Corporal Lediard is an extraordinary man,
something of whose history cannot fail of being entertaining to my
readers. In the winter of 1768, he set out on the singular
undertaking of walking across the continent of America; for the
accomplishment of which purpose, he determined to travel by the
way of Siberia, and to procure a passage from that country to the
opposite American coast. Being an American by birth, and having;
no means of raising the money necessary for his expenses, a
subscription was raised for him by Sir Joseph Banks, and some
other gentlemen, accounting, in the whole to a little more than
fifty pounds. Vith this sum he proceeded to Hamburgh, frum which
place he went to Copenhagen, and thence to Petersburgh, where he
arrived in the beginning of March, 1787. In his journey from
Copenhagen to Petersburgh, finding that the gulf of Bothnia was
not frozen over, he was obliged to walk round the whole of it, by
TornŠo. At Petersburgh he staid till the 21st of May, when he
obtained leave to accompany a convoy of military stores, which at
that time was proceeding to Mr. Bilious, who had been his shipmate
in Captain Cook's voyage, and who was then employed by the Empress
of Russia, for the purpose of making discoveries in Siberia, and
on the north-west coast of America. With this convoy Mr. Lediard
set out, and in August reached the city of Irkutsk in Siberia.
After that, he proceeded to the town of Yakutsk, where he met with
Captain Billings. From this place he went back to Irkutsh, to
spend a part of the winter; proposing, in the spring, to return to
Yakutsk, in order to proceed in the summer to Okotsk.

Hitherto, Mr. Lediard had gone on prosperously, and flattered
himself with the hopes of succeeding in his undertaking. But. in
January last (1788), in consequence of an express from the
empress, he was arrested, and, to half an hour's time, carried
away, under the guard of two soldiers and an officer, in a post
sledge, for Moscow, without his clothes, money, and papers. From
Moscow he was conveyed to the city of Moialoff in White Russia,
and thence to the town of Tolochin in Poland. There he was
informed, that her majesty's orders were, that he was never to
enter her dominions again without her express permission. During
all this time, he suffered the greatest hardships, from sickness,
fatigue, and want of rest; so that he was almost reduced to a
skeleton. From Tolochin he made his way to Konigsberg; having had,
as he says, a miserable journey, in a miserable country, in a
miserable season, in miserable health, and a miserable purse; and.
disappointed of his darling enterprise. Mr. Lediard informs Sir
Joseph Banks, to whom he sent, from time to time, a full account
of his transactions, that, though he had been retarded in his
pursuits by malice, he had not travelled totally in vain; his
observations to Asia being, perhaps, as complete as a longer visit
would have rendered them. From his last letter it appears, that he
proposed to return, as speedily as possible, from Konigsberg to
England.]

When, on the 21st, Mr. Ismyloff took his final leave of the English navigators, our commander intrusted to his care a letter to the lords commissioners of the admiralty, in which was enclosed a chart of all the northern coasts the captain had visited. It was expected, that there would be an opportunity of sending this letter, in the ensuing spring, to Kamtschatka or Okotsk, and that it would reach Petersburgh during the following winter. Mr. Ismyloff, who faithfully and successfully discharged the trust our commander had reposed in him, seemed to possess abilities, that might entitle him to a higher station in life than that which he occupied. He had a considerable knowledge of astronomy, and was acquainted with the most useful branches of the mathematics. Captain Cook made him a present of an Hadley's octant; and, though it was probably the first he had ever seen, he understood, in a very short time, the various uses to which that instrument can be applied.

While the ships lay at Oonalashka, our voyagers did not neglect to make a diligent inquiry into the productions of the island, and the general manners of the inhabitants. On these, as being in a great measure similar to objects which have already been noticed, it is not necessary to enlarge. There is one circumstance, however, so honourable to the natives, that it must not be omitted. They are, to all appearance, the most peaceable and inoffensive people our commander had ever met with; and, with respect to honesty, they might serve as a pattern to countries that are in the highest state of civilization. A doubt is suggested, whether this disposition may not have been the consequence of their present subjection to the Russians. From the affinity which was found to subsist between the dialects of the Greenlanders and Esquimaux, and those of the inhabitants of Norton's Sound and Oonalashka, there is strong reason to believe, that all these nations are of the same extraction; and, if that be the case, the existence of a northern communication of some kind, by sea, between the west of America and the east side, through Baffin's Bay, can scarcely be doubted; which communication, nevertheless, may effectually be shut up against ships, by ice and other impediments.

While the vessels lay in Samganoodha harbour, Captain Cook exerted his usual diligence in making nautical and astronomical observations. All things, on the 26th, having been gotten ready for his departure, he put to sea on that day, and sailed for the Sandwich Islands; it being his intention to spend a few months there, and then to direct his course to Kamtschatka, so as to endeavour to reach that country by the middle of May, in the ensuing summer.

On the 26th of November, when the ships had proceeded southward till they came to the latitude of 20░ 55', land was discovered, which proved to be an island of the name of Mowee, that had not hitherto been visited. It is one of the group of the Sandwich Islands. As it was of the last importance to procure a supply of provisions at these islands, and experience had taught our commander, that he could have had no chance of succeeding in his object, if it were left to every man's discretion to traffic for what he pleased, and in what manner he pleased; the captain published an order, prohibiting all persons from trading, excepting such as should be appointed by himself and Captain Clerke. Even these persons were enjoined to trade only for provisions and refreshments. While our navigators lay off Mowee, which was for some days, a friendly intercourse was maintained with the inhabitants.

Another island was discovered on the 30th, which is called by the natives Owhyhee. As it appeared to be of greater extent and importance than any of the islands which had yet been visited in this part of the world, Captain Cook spent nearly seven weeks in sailing round, and examining its coast. Whilst he was thus employed, the inhabitants came off, from time to time, in their canoes, and readily engaged in traffic with our voyagers. In the conduct of this business, the behaviour of the islanders was more entirely free from suspicion and reserve than our commander had ever yet experienced. Noteven the people of Otaheite itself, with whom he had been so intimately and repeatedly connected, had displayed such a full confidence in the integrity and good treatment of the English.

Among the articles procured from the natives, was a quantity of sugarcane. Upon a trial, Captain Cook found that a strong decoction of it produced a very palatable beer; on which account, he ordered some more to be brewed, for general use. When, however, the barrel was broached, not one of the crew would taste of the liquor. As the captain had no motive in preparing this beverage, but that of sparing the rum and other spirits for a colder climate, he did not exert either authority or persuasion to prevail upon the men to change their resolution; for he knew, that there was no danger of the scurvy, so long as a plentiful supply could be obtained of different vegetables. Nevertheless, that he might not be disappointed in his views, he gave orders that no grog should be served in the ships; and he himself, together with the officers, continued to make use of the sugarcane beer, which was much improved by the addition of a few hops, that chanced to be still on board. There could be no reasonable doubt of its being a very wholesome liquor; and yet the inconsiderate crew alleged that it would be injurious to their health. No people are more averse to every kind of innovation than seamen, and their prejudices are extremely difficult to be conquered. It was, however, by acting contrary to these prejudices, and by various deviations from established practice, that Captain Cook had been enabled to preserve his men from that dreadful distemper, the scurvy, which, perhaps, has destroyed more of our sailors, in their peaceful voyages, than have fallen by the enemy in military expeditions.

As the captain was pursuing his examination of the coast of Owhyhee, it having fallen calm at one o'clock in the morning of the 19th of December, the Resolution was left to the mercy of a north-easterly swell, which impelled her fast towards the land; so that, long before daybreak, lights were seen from the land, which was not more than a league distant. The night, at the same time, was dark, with thunder, lightning and rain. As soon as it was light, a dreadful surf, within half a league of the vessel, appeared breaking from the shore; and it was evident, that our navigators had been in the most perilous situation: nor was the danger yet over; for to consequence of the veering of the wind, they were but just able to keep their distance from the coast. What rendered their situation more alarming was, that a rope of the main topsail having given way, this occasioned the sail to be rent in two. In the same manner, the two topgallant sails gave way, though they were not half worn out. However, a favourable opportunity was seized of getting others to the yards; and the Resolution again proceeded in safety.

On the 16th of January, 1779, canoes arrived in such numbers from all parts, that there were not fewer than a thousand about the two ships, most of them crowded with people, and well laden with hogs, and other productions of the islands. It was a satisfactory proof of their friendly intentions, that there was not a single person amongst them who had with him a weapon of any kind; trade and curiosity alone appearing to be the motives which actuated their conduct. Among such multitudes, however, as, at times, were on board, it will not be deemed surprising, that some should betray a thievish disposition. One of them took out of the Resolution a boat's rudder; and made off with it so speedily, that it could not be recovered. Captain Cook judged this to be a favourable opportunity of shewing to these people the use of fire-arms; and accordingly he ordered two or three muskets, and as many four-pounders, to be fired over the canoe, which carried off the rudder. It not being intended that any of the shot should take effect, the surrounding multitude of the natives seemed to be more surprised than terrified.

Mr. Bligh, having been sent to examine a neighbouring bay, reported, on his return, that it had good anchorage and fresh water, and that it was in an accessible situation. Into this bay, therefore the captain resolved to carry the ships, in order to refit, and to obtain every refreshment which the place could afford. As night approached, the greater part of the Indians retired on shore; but numbers of them requested permission to sleep on board; in which request, curiosity (at least with regard to several of them) was not their sole motive; for it was found, the next morning, that various things were missing; on which account our commander determined not to entertain so many persons on board another night.

On the 17th, the ships came to an anchor in the bay which had been examined by Mr. Bligh, and which is called Karakakooa by the inhabitants. At this time, the vessels continued to be much crowded with natives and were surrounded with a multitude of canoes. Captain Cook, in the whole course of his voyages, had never seen so numerous a body of people assembled in one place. For besides those who had come off to the English in their canoes, all the shore of the bay was covered with spectators, and many hundreds were swimming round the ships like shoals of fish. Our navigators could not avoid being greatly impressed with the singularity of this scene; and perhaps there were few on board that now lamented the want of success which had attended the endeavours of getting homeward, the last summer, by a northern passage. 'To this disappointment,' says the captain, 'we owed our having it in our power to revisit the Sandwich Islands, and to enrich our voyage with a discovery, which, though the last, seemed, in many respects, to be the most important that had hitherto been made by Europeans, throughout the extent of the Pacific Ocean.'

Such is the sentence that concludes our commander's journal: and the satisfaction with which this sentence appears to have been written, cannot fail of striking the mind of every reader. Little did Captain Cook then imagine, that a discovery which promised to add no small honour to his name, and to be productive of very agreeable consequences, should be so fatal in the result. Little did he think, that the island of Owhyhee was destined to be the last scene of his exploits, and the cause of his destruction.

The reception which the captain met with from the natives, on his proceeding to anchor in Karakakooa Bay, was flattering in the highest degree. They came off from the shore in astonishing numbers, and expressed their joy by singing and shouting, and by exhibiting a variety of wild and extravagant gestures. Pareea, a young man of great authority, and Kaneena, another chief, had already attached themselves to our commander, and were very useful in keeping their countrymen from being troublesome.

During the long cruise of our navigators off the island of Owhyhee, the inhabitants had almost universally behaved with great fairness and honesty in their dealings, and had not shewn the slightest propensity to theft: and this was a fact the more extraordinary, as those with whom our people had hitherto maintained any intercourse, were of the lowest rank, being either servants or fishermen. But, after the arrival of the Resolution and Discovery in Karakakooa Bay, the case was greatly altered. The immense crowd of islanders that blocked up every part of the ships, not only afforded frequent opportunities of pilfering without risk of detection; but held out, even if they should be detected, a prospect of escaping with impunity, from the superiority of their numbers to that of the English. Another circumstance, to which the alteration in the conduct of the natives might be ascribed, arose from the presence and encouragement of their chiefs, into whose possession the booty might be traced, and whom there was reason to suspect of being the instigators of the depredations that were committed.

Soon after the Resolution had gotten into her station, Pareea and Kaneena brought on board a third chief, named Koah, who was represented as being a priest, and as having, in his early youth, been a distinguished warrior. In the evening, Captain Cook attended by Mr. Bayley and Mr. King, accompanied Koah on shore. Upon this occasion, the captain was received with very peculiar and extraordinary ceremonies; with ceremonies that indicated the highest respect on the part of the natives, and which, indeed, seemed to fall little short of adoration.

One of the principal objects that engaged our commander's attention at Owhyhee, was the salting of hogs for sea-store; in which his success was far more complete than had been attained in any former attempt of the same kind. It doth not appear, that experiments relative to this subject had been made by the navigators of any nation before Captain Cook. His first trials were in 1774, during his second voyage round the world; when his success, though very imperfect, was nevertheless, sufficient to encourage his farther efforts, in a matter of so much importance. As the present voyage was likely to be protracted a year beyond the time for which the ships were victualled, he was under a necessity of providing, by some such method, for the subsistence of the crews, or of relinquishing the prosecution of his discoveries. Accordingly, he lost no opportunity of renewing his attempts; and the event answered his most sanguine expectations. Captain King brought home with him some of the pork, which was pickled at Owhyhee in January, 1779; and, upon its being tasted by several persons in England about Christmas, 1780, it was found to be perfectly sound and wholesome. It seemed to be destined, that in every instance Captain Cook should excel all who had gone before him, in promoting the purposes of navigation.

On the 26th, the captain had his first interview with Terreeoboo, the king of the island. The meeting was conducted with a variety of ceremonies, among which, the custom of making an exchange of names, which, amongst all the islanders of the Pacific Ocean is the strongest pledge of friendship, was observed. When the formalities of the interview were over, our commander carried Terreeoboo, and as many chiefs as the pinnace could hold, on board the Resolution. They were received, on this occasion, with every mark of respect that could be shown them; and, in return for a beautiful and splendid feathered cloak which the king had bestowed on Captain Cook, the captain put a linen shirt on his majesty, and girt his own hanger round him.

In the progress of the intercourse which was maintained between our voyagers and the natives, the quiet and inoffensive behaviour of the latter took away every apprehension of danger; so that the English trusted themselves among them at all times, and in all situations. The instances of kindness and civility which our people experienced from them were so numerous, that they could not easily be recounted. A society of priests, in particular, displayed a generosity and munificence, of which no equal example had hitherto been given: for they furnished a constant supply of hogs and vegetables to our navigators, without ever demanding a return, or even hinting at it in the most distant manner. All this was said to be done at the expense of a great man among them, who was at the head of their body, whose name was Kaoo, and who on other occasions manifested his attachment to the English. There was not always so much reason to be satisfied with the conduct of the warrior chiefs, or earees, as with that of the priests. Indeed, the satisfaction that was derived from the usual gentleness and hospitality of the inhabitants, was frequently interrupted by the propensity of many of them to stealing; and this circumstance was the more distressing, as it sometimes obliged our commander and the other officers to have recourse to acts of severity, which they would willingly have avoided, if the necessity of the case had not absolutely called for them.

Though the kind and liberal behaviour of the natives continued without remission, Terreeoboo, and his chiefs, began at length to be very inquisitive about the time in which our voyagers were to take their departure. Nor will this be deemed surprising, when it is considered, that, during sixteen days in which the English had been in the bay of Karakakooa, they had made an enormous consumption of hogs and vegetables. It did not appear, however, that Terreeoboo had any other in view in his inquiries, than a desire of making sufficient preparation for dismissing our navigators with presents, suitable to the respect and kindness towards them which he had always displayed. For, on his being informed, that they were to leave the island in a day or two, it was observed, that a kind of proclamation was immediately made through the villages, inquiring the people to bring in their hogs and vegetables, for the king to present to the orono,[13] on his quitting the country. Accordingly, on the 3rd of February, being the day preceding the time which had been fixed for the sailing of the ships, Terreeoboo invited Captain Cook and Mr. King to attend him to the place where Kaoo resided. On their arrival, they found the ground covered with parcels of cloth, at a small distance from which lay an immense quantity of vegetables; and near them was a large herd of hogs. At the close of the visit, the greater part of the cloth, and the whole of the hogs and vegetables, were given by Terreeoboo to the captain and Mr. King; who were astonished at the value and magnificence of the present; for it far exceeded every thing of the kind which they had seen either at the Friendly or Society Islands. Mr. King had in so high a degree conciliated the affections, and gained the esteem, of the inhabitants of Owhyhee, that, with offers of the most flattering nature, he was strongly solicited to remain in the country. Terreeoboo and Kaoo waited upon Captain Cook, whose son they supposed Mr. King to be, with a formal request, that he might be left behind. To avoid giving a positive refusal to an offer which was so kindly intended, the captain told them that he could not part with Mr. King at that time, but that, on his return to the island in the next year, he would endeavour to settle the matter to their satisfaction.

[Footnote 13: Orono was a title of high honour, which had been
bestowed on Captain Cook]

Early on the 4th, the ships sailed out of Karakakooa Bay, being followed by a large number of canoes. It was our commander's design, before he visited the other islands, to finish the survey of Owhyhee, in hopes of meeting with a road better sheltered than the bay he had just left. In case of not succeeding in this respect, he purposed to take a view of the south-east part of Mowee, where he was informed that he should find an excellent harbour.

The circumstances which brought Captain Cook back to Karakakooa Bay, and the unhappy consequences that followed, I shall give from Mr. Samwell's narrative of his death. This narrative was, in the most obliging manner, communicated to me in manuscript, by Mr. Samwell, with entire liberty to make such use of it as I should judge proper. Upon a perusal of it, its importance struck me in so strong a light, that I wished to have it separately laid before the world. Accordingly, with Mr. Samwell's concurrence, I procured its publication, that, if any objections should be made to it, I might be able to notice them in my own work. As the narrative hath continued for more than two years unimpeached and uncontradicted, I esteem myself fully authorized to insert it in this place, as containing the most complete and authentic account of the melancholy catastrophe, which, at Owhyhee, befell our illustrious navigator and commander.

'On the 6th, we were overtaken by a gale of wind; and the next night, the Resolution had the misfortune of springing the head of her foremast, in such a dangerous manner, that Captain Cook was obliged to return to Keragegooah,[14] in order to have it repaired; for we could find no other convenient harbour on the island. The same gale had occasioned much distress among some canoes, that had paid us a visit from the shore. One of them, with two men and a child on board, was picked up by the Resolution, and rescued from destruction; the men, having toiled hard all night, in attempting to reach the land, were so much exhausted, that they could hardly mount the ship's side. When they got upon the quarter-deck, they burst into tears, and seemed much affected with the dangerous situation from which they had escaped; but the little child appeared lively and cheerful. One of the Resolution's boats was also so fortunate as to save a man and two women, whose canoe had been upset by the violence of the waves. They were brought on board, and, with the others, partook of the kindness and humanity of Captain Cook.

[Footnote 14: It is proper to take notice, that Mr. Samwell spells
the names of several persons and places differently from what is
dune in the history of the voyage.
For instance, Karakakooa
he calls Ke, rag, e, goo, all,
Terreeoboo Kariopoo,
Kowrowa Kavaroah,
Kaneecab areea Kaneekapo, herei,
Maiha maiha Ka, mea, mea.]

'On the morning of Wednesday, the 10th, we were within a few miles of the harbour; and were soon joined by several canoes, in which appeared many of our old acquaintances, who seemed to have come to welcome us back. Among them was Coo, aha, a priest: he had brought a small pig, and some cocoa-nuts in his hand, which, after having chanted a few sentences, he presented to Captain Clerke. He then left us, and hastened on board the Resolution, to perform the same friendly ceremonies before Captain Cook. Having but light winds all that day, we could not gain the harbour. In the afternoon, a chief of the first rank, and nearly related to Kariopoo, paid us a visit on board the Discovery. His name was Ka, mea, mea: he was dressed in a very rich feathered cloak, which he seemed to have brought for sale, but would part with it for nothing except iron daggers. These the chiefs, some time before our departure, had preferred to every other article; for, having received a plentiful supply of hatchets and other tools, they began to collect a store of warlike instruments. Kameamea procured nine daggers for his cloak; and, being pleased with his reception, he and his attendants slept on board that night.

'In the morning of the 11th of February, the ships anchored again in Keragegooah Bay, and preparation was immediately made for landing the Resolution's foremast. We were visited but by few of the Indians, because there were but few in the bay. On our departure, those belonging to other parts had repaired to their several habitations, and were again to collect from various quarters, before we could expect to be surrounded by such multitudes as we had once seen in that harbour. In the afternoon, I walked about a mile into the country, to visit an Indian friend, who had, a few days before, come near twenty miles, in a small canoe, to see me, while the ship lay becalmed. As the canoe had not left us long before a gale of wind came on. I was alarmed for the consequence: however, I had the pleasure to find, that my friend had escaped unhurt, though not without some difficulties. I take notice of this short excursion, merely because it afforded me an opportunity of observing, that there appeared no change in the disposition or behaviour of the inhabitants. I saw nothing that could induce me to think, that they were displeased with our return, or jealous of the intention of our second visit. On the contrary, that abundant good nature, which had always characterized them, seemed still to glow in every bosom, and to animate every countenance.

'The next day, February the 12th, the ships were put under a taboo, by the chiefs: a solemnity, it seems, that was requisite to be observed, before Kariopoo, the king, paid his first visit to Captain Cook, after his return. He waited upon him the same day, on board the Resolution, attended by a large train, some of which bore the presents designed for Captain Cook; who received him in his usual friendly manner, and gave him several articles in return. This amicable ceremony being settled, the taboo was disolved; matters went on in the usual train; and the next day, February the 13th we were visited by the natives in great numbers: the Resolution's mast was landed, and the astronomical observatories erected on their former situation. I landed, with another gentleman, at the town of Kavaroah, where we found a great number of canoes, just arrived from different parts of the island, and the Indians busy in constructing temporary huts on the beach, for their residence during the stay of the ships. On our return on board the Discovery, we learned, that an Indian had been detected in stealing the armourer's tongs from the forge, for which he received a pretty severe flogging, and was sent out of the ship. Notwithstanding the example made of this man, in the afternoon another had the audacity to snatch the tongs and a chisel from the same place, with which he jumped overboard and swam for the shore. The master and a midshipman were instantly dispatched after him, in the small cutter. The Indian, seeing himself pursued, made for a canoe; his countrymen took him on board, and paddled as swift as they could towards the shore; we fired several muskets at them, but to no effect, for they soon got out of the reach of our shot. Pareah, one of the chiefs, who was at that time on board the Discovery, understanding what had happened, immediately went ashore, promising to bring back the stolen goods. Our boat was so far distanced, in chasing the canoe which had taken the thief on board, that he had time to make his escape into the country. Captain Cook, who was then ashore, endeavoured to intercept his landing; but it seems, that he was led out of the way by some of the natives, who had officiously intruded themselves as guides. As the master was approaching near the landing place, he was met by some of the Indians in a canoe: they had brought back the tongs and chisel, together with another article, that we had not missed, which happened to be the lid of the water cask. Having recovered these things, he was returning on board, when he was met by the Resolution's pinnace, with five men in her, who, without any orders, had come from the observatories to his assistance. Being thus unexpectedly reinforced he thought himself strong enough to insist upon having the thief, or the canoe which took him in, delivered up as reprisals. With that view he turned back; and having found the canoe on the beach, he was preparing to launch it into the water, when Pareah made his appearance, and insisted upon his not taking it away, as it was his property. The officer not regarding him, the chief seized upon him, pinioned his arms behind, and held him by the hair of his head; on which one of the sailors struck him with an oar; Pareah instantly quitted the officer, snatched the oar out of the man's hand, and snapped it in two across his knee. At length the multitude began to attack our people with stones. They made some resistance, but were soon overpowered, and obliged to swim for safety to the small cutter, which lay farther out than the pinnace. The officers, not being expert swimmers, retreated to a small rock in the water, where they were closely pursued by the Indians. One man darted a broken oar at the master; but his foot slipping at the time, he missed him, which fortunately saved that officer's life. At last, Pareah interfered, and put an end to their violence. The gentlemen, knowing that his presence was their only defence against the fury of the natives, entreated him to stay with them, till they could get off in the boats; but that he refused, and left them. The master went to seek assistance from the party at the observatories; but the midshipman chose to remain in the pinnace. He was very rudely treated by the mob, who plundered the boat of every thing that was loose on board, and then began to knock her to pieces, for the sake of the iron work; but Pareah fortunately returned in time to prevent her destruction. He had met the other gentleman on his way to the observatories, and suspecting his errand, had forced him to return. He dispersed the crowd again, and desired the gentlemen to return on board; they represented, that all the oars had been taken out of the boat on which he brought some of them back, and the gentlemen were glad to get off without farther molestation. They had not proceeded far, before they were overtaken by Pareah, in a canoe: he delivered the midshipman's cap, which had been taken from him in the scuffle, joined noses with them, in token of reconciliation, and was anxious to know, if Captain Cook would kill him for what had happened. They assured him of the contrary, and made signs of friendship to him in return. He then left them, and paddled over to the town of Kavaroah, and that was the last time we ever saw him. Captain Cook returned on board soon after, much displeased with the whole of this disagreeable business; and the same night sent a lieutenant on board the Discovery to learn the particulars of it, as it had originated in that ship.

'It was remarkable, that in the midst of the hurry and confusion attending this affair, Kanynah (a chief who had always been on terms particularly friendly with us) came from the spot where it happened, with a hog to sell on board the Discovery: it was of an extraordinary large size, and he demanded for it a pahowa, or dagger of an unusual length. He pointed to us, that it must be as long as his arm. Captain Clerke not having one of that length, told him he would get, one made for him by the morning; with which being satisfied, he left the hog, and went ashore without making any stay with us. It will not be altogether foreign to the subject, to mention a circumstance, that happened to-day on board the Resolution. An Indian chief asked Captain Cook, at his table, if he was a Tata Toa; which means a fighting man, or a soldier. Being answered in the affirmative, he desired to see his wounds. Captain Cook held out his right hand, which had a scar upon it, dividing the thumb from the finger, the whole length of the metacarpal bones. The Indian, being thus convinced of his being a Toa, put the same question to another gentleman present, but be happened to have none of those distinguishing marks; the chief then said, that he himself was a Toa, and shewed the scars of some wounds he had received in battle. Those who were on duty at the observatories, were disturbed, during the night, with shrill and melancholy sounds, issuing from the adjacent villages, which they took to be the lamentations of the women. Perhaps the quarrel between us might have filled their minds with apprehension for the safety of their husbands; but, be that as it may, their mournful cries struck the sentinels with unusual awe and terror.

'To widen the breach between us, some of the Indians, in the night, took away the Discovery's large cutter, which lay swamped at the buoy of one of her anchors: they had carried her off so quietly that we did not miss her till the morning, Sunday, February the 14th. Captain Clerke lost no time in waiting upon Captain Cook to acquaint him with the accident: he returned on board, with orders for the launch and small cutter, to go, under the command of the second lieutenant, and lie off the east point of the bay, in order to intercept all canoes that might attempt to get out; and, if he found it necessary, to fire upon them. At the same time, the third lieutenant of the Resolution, with the launch and small cutter, was sent on the same service, to the opposite point of the bay; and the master was dispatched in the large cutter, in pursuit of a double canoe, already under sail, making the best of her way out of the harbour. He soon came up with her, and by firing a few muskets, drove her on shore, and the Indians left her: this happened to be the canoe of Omea, a man who bore the title of Orono. He was on board himself, and it would have been fortunate, if our people had secured him, for his person was held as sacred as that of the king. During this time, Captain Cook was preparing to go ashore himself, at the town of Kavaroah, in order to secure the person of Kariopoo, before he should have time to withdraw himself to another part of the island, out of our reach. This appeared the most effectual step that could be taken, on the present occasion, for the recovery of the boat. It was the measure he had invariably pursued, in similar cases, at other islands in these seas, and it had always been attended with the desired success: in fact, it would be difficult to point out any other mode of proceeding on these emergencies, likely to attain the object in view; we had reason to suppose, that the king and his attendants had fled when the alarm was first given: in that case, it was Captain Cook's intention to secure the large canoes which were hauled upon the beach. He left the ship about seven o'clock, attended by the lieutenant of marines, a serjeant, corporal, and seven private men: the pinnace's crew were also armed, and under the command of Mr. Roberts. As they rowed towards the shore, Captain Cook ordered the launch to leave her station at the west point of the bay, in order to assist his own boat. This is a circumstance worthy of notice; for it clearly shews, that he was not unapprehensive of meeting with resistance from the natives, or unmindful of the necessary preparation for the safety of himself and his people. I will venture to say, that, from the appearance of things just at that time, there was not one, beside himself, who judged that such precaution was absolutely requisite: so little did his conduct, on the occasion, bear the marks of rashness, or a precipitate self-confidence! He landed, with the marines, at the upper end of the town of Kavaroah: the Indians immediately flocked round, as usual, and shewed him the customary marks of respect, by prostrating themselves before him.--There were no signs of hostilities, or much alarm among them. Captain Cook, however, did not seem willing to trust to appearances; but was particularly attentive to the disposition of the marines, and to have them kept clear of the crowd. He first inquired for the king's sons, two youths who were much attached to him, and generally his companions on board. Messengers being sent for them, they soon came to him, and informing him, that their father was asleep, at a house not far from them, he accompanied them thither, and took the marines along with them. As he passed along, the natives every where prostrated themselves before him, and seemed to have lost no part of that respect they had always shown to his person. He was joined by several chiefs, among whom was Kanynah, and his brother Koohowrooah. They kept the crowd in order, according to their usual custom; and, being ignorant of his intention in coming on shore, frequently asked him, if he wanted any hogs, or other provisions: he told them that he did not, and that his business was to see the king. When he arrived at the house, he ordered some of the Indians to go in, and inform Kariopoo, that he waited without to speak with him. They came out two or three times, and instead of returning any answer from the king, presented some pieces of red cloth to him, which made Captain Cook suspect that he was not in the house; he therefore desired the lieutenant of marines to go in. The lieutenant found the old man just awaked from sleep and seemingly alarmed at the message; but he came out without hesitation. Captain Cook took him by the hand, and in a friendly manner asked him to go on board, to which he very readily consented. Thus far matters appeared in a favourable train, and the natives did not seem much alarmed or apprehensive of hostility on our side; at which Captain Cook expressed himself a little surprised, saying, that as the inhabitants of that town appeared innocent of stealing the cutter, he should not molest them, but that he must get the king on board. Kariopoo sat down before his door, and was surrounded by a great crowd: Kanynah and his brother were both very active in keeping order among them. In a little time, however, the Indians were observed arming themselves with long spears, clubs, and daggers, and putting on thick mats, which they use as armour. This hostile appearance increased, and became more alarming, on the arrival of two men in a canoe from the opposite side of the bay, with the news of a chief, called Kareemoo, having been killed by one of the Discovery's boats. In their passage across, they had also delivered this account to each of the ships. Upon that information, the women, who were sitting upon the beach at their breakfasts, and conversing familiarly with our people in the boats, retired, and a confused murmur spread through the crowd. An old priest came to Captain Cook, with a cocoa-nut in his hand, which he held out to him as a present, at the same time singing very loud. He was often desired to be silent, but in vain: he continued importunate and troublesome, and there was no such thing as getting rid of him or his noise: it seemed as if he meant to divert their attention from his countrymen, who were growing more tumultuous, and arming themselves in every quarter. Captain Cook, being at the same time surrounded by a great crowd, thought his situation rather hazardous: he therefore ordered the lieutenant of marines to march his small party to the waterside, where the boats lay within a few yards of the shore: the Indians readily made a lane for them to pass, and did not offer to interrupt them. The distance they had to go might be about fifty or sixty yards; Captain Cook followed, having hold of Kariopoo's hand, who accompanied him very willingly: he was attended by his wife, two sons, and several chiefs. The troublesome old priest followed, making the same savage noise. Keowa, the youngest son, went directly into the pinnace, expecting his father to follow: but just as he arrived at the waterside, his wife threw her arms about his neck, and, with the assistance of two chiefs, forced him to sit down by the side of a double canoe. Captain Cook expostulated with them, but to no purpose: they would not suffer the king to proceed, telling him, that he would be put to death if he went on board the ship. Kariopoo, whose conduct seemed entirely resigned to the will of others, hung down his head, and appeared much distressed.

'While the king was in this situation, a chief, well known to us, of the name of Coho, was observed lurking near, with an iron dagger, partly concealed under his cloak, seemingly with the intention of stabbing Captain Cook, or the lieutenant of marines. The latter proposed to fire at him, but Captain Cook would not permit it. Coho closing upon them, obliged the officer to strike him with his piece, which made him retire. Another Indian laid hold of the sergeant's musket, and endeavoured to wrench it from him, but was prevented by the lieutenant's making a blow at him. Captain Cook, seeing the tumult increase, and the Indians growing more daring and resolute, observed, that if he were to take the king off by force, he could not do it without sacrificing the lives of many of his people. He then paused a little, and was on the point of giving his orders to re-embark, when a man threw a stone at him; which he returned with a discharge of small shot (with which one barrel of his double piece was loaded). The man, having a thick mat before him, received little or no hurt: he brandished his spear, and threatened to dart it at Captain Cook, who being still unwilling to take away his life, instead of firing with ball, knocked him down with his musket. He expostulated strongly with the most forward of the crowd, upon their turbulent behaviour. He had given up all thoughts of getting the king on board, as it appeared impracticable; and his care was then only to act on the defensive, and to secure a safe embarkation for his small party, which was closely pressed by a body of several thousand people. Keowa, the king's son, who was in the pinnace, being alarmed on hearing the first firing, was, at his own entreaty, put on shore again; for even at that time Mr. Roberts, who commanded her, did not apprehend that Captain Cook's person was in any danger: otherwise he would have detained the prince, which, no doubt, would have been a great check on the Indians. One man was observed, behind a double canoe, in the action of darting his spear at Captain Cook, who was forced to fire at him in his own defence, but happened to kill another close to him, equally forward in the tumult: the serjeant observing that he had missed the man he aimed at, received orders to fire at him, which he did, and killed him. By this time, the impetuosity of the Indians was somewhat repressed; they fell back in a body, and seemed staggered; but being pushed on by those behind, they returned to the charge, and poured a volley of stones among the marines, who, without waiting for orders, returned it with a general discharge of musketry, which was instantly followed by a fire from the boats. At this Captain Cook was heard to express his astonishment: he waved his hand to the boats, called to them to cease firing, and to come nearer in to receive the marines. Mr. Roberts immediately brought the pinnace as close to the shore as he could, without grounding, notwithstanding the showers of stones that fell among the people: but ---- the lieutenant, who commanded in the launch, instead of pulling in to the assistance of Captain Cook, withdrew his boat farther off, at the moment that every thing seems to have depended upon the timely exertions of those in the boats. By his own account, he mistook the signal, but be that as it may, this circumstance appears to me, to have decided the fatal turn of the affair, and to have removed every chance which remained with Captain Cook, of escaping with his life. The business of saving the marines out of the water, in consequence of that, fell altogether upon the pinnace; which thereby became so much crowded, that the crew were, in a great measure, prevented from using their fire-arms, or giving what assistance they otherwise might have done, to Captain Cook; so that he seems, at the most critical point of time, to have wanted the assistance of both boats, owing to the removal of the launch. For, notwithstanding that they kept up a fire on the crowd, from the situation to which they removed in that boat, the fatal confusion which ensued on her being withdrawn, to say the least of it, must have prevented the full effect that the prompt co-operation of the two boats, according to Captain Cook's orders, must have had, towards the preservation of himself and his people.[15] At that time, it was to the boats alone that Captain Cook had to look for his safety; for, when the marines had fired, the Indians rushed among them, and forced them into the water, where four of them were killed: their lieutenant was wounded, but fortunately escaped, and was taken up by the pinnace. Captain Cook was then the only one remaining on the rock: as observed making for the pinnace, holding his left hand against the back of his head, to guard it from the stones, and carrying his musket under the other arm. An Indian was seen following him, but with caution and timidity; for he stopped once or twice, as if undetermined to proceed. At last he advanced upon him unawares, and with a large club, or common stake, gave him a blow on the back of the head, and then precipitately retreated. The stroke seemed to have stunned Captain Cook: he staggered a few paces, then fell on his hand and one knee, and dropped his musket. As he was rising, and before he could recover his feet, another Indian stabbed him in the back of the neck with an iron dagger. He then fell into a bit of water about knee deep, where others crowded upon him, and endeavoured to keep him under: but struggling very strongly with them, he got his head up, and casting his look towards the pinnace, seemed to solicit assistance. Though the boat was not above five or six yards distant from him, yet from the crowded and confused state of the crew, it seems, it was not in their power to save him. The Indians got him under again, but in deeper water: he was, however, able to get his head up once more, and being almost spent in the struggle, he naturally turned to the rock, and was endeavouring to support himself by it, when a savage gave him a blow with a club, and he was seen alive no more. They hauled him up lifeless on the rocks, where they seemed to take a savage pleasure in using every barbarity to his dead body, snatching the daggers out of each other's hands, to have the horrid satisfaction of piercing the fallen victim of their barbarous rage.

[Footnote 15: I have been informed on the best authority, that in
the opinion of Captain Philips, who commanded the marines, and
whose judgment must be of the greatest weight, it is extremely
doubtful whether any thing could successfully have been done to
preserve the life of Captain Cook, even if no mistake had been
committed on the part of the launch.]

'I need make no reflection on the great loss we suffered on this occasion, or attempt to describe what we felt. It is enough, to say, that no man was ever more beloved or admired: and it is truly painful to reflect that he seems to have fallen a sacrifice merely for want of being properly supported; a fate, singularly to be lamented, as having fallen to his lot, who had ever been conspicuous for his care of those under his command, and who seemed, to the last, to pay as much attention to their preservation, as to that of his own life.

'If any thing could have added to the shame and indignation universally felt on this occasion, it was to find, that his remains had been deserted, and left exposed on the beach, although they might have been brought off. It appears, from the information of four or five midshipmen, who arrived on the spot at the conclusion of the fatal business, that the beach was then almost entirely deserted by the Indians, who at length had given way to the fire of the boats, and dispersed through the town: so that there seemed no great obstacle to prevent the recovery of Captain Cook's body; but the lieutenant returned on board without making the attempt. It is unnecessary to dwell longer on this painful subject, and to relate the complaints and censures that fell on the conduct of the lieutenant. It will be sufficient to observe that they were so loud as to oblige Captain Clerke publicly to notice them, and to take the depositions of his accusers down in writing. The captains bad state of health and approaching dissolution, it is supposed, induced him to destroy these papers a short time before his death.

'It is a painful task to be obliged to notice circumstances which seem to reflect upon the character of any man. A strict regard to truth, however, compelled me to the insertion of these facts, which I have offered merely as facts, without presuming to connect with them any comment of my own: esteeming it the part of a faithful historian, "to extenuate nothing, nor set down aught in malice."

'The fatal accident happened at eight o'clock in the morning, about an hour after Captain Cook landed. It did not seem that the king, or his sons, were witnesses to it: but it is supposed, that they withdrew in the midst of the tumult. The principal actors were the other chiefs, many of them the king's relations and attendants; the man who stabbed him with the dagger was called Nooah. I happened to be the only one who recollected his person, from having on a former occasion mentioned his name in the journal I kept. I was induced to take particular notice of him, more from his personal appearance than any other consideration, though he was of high rank, and a near relation of the king: he was stout and tall, with a fierce look and demeanour, and one who united in his figure the two qualities of strength and agility, in a greater degree than ever I remembered to have seen before in any other man. His age might be about thirty, and by the white scurf on his skin, and his sore eyes, he appeared to be a hard drinker of kava. He was a constant companion of the king, with whom I first saw him, when he paid a visit to Captain Clerke. The chief who first struck Captain Cook with the club, was called Karimano, craha, but I did not know him by his name. These circumstances I learned of honest Kaireekea, the priest; who added, that they were both held in great esteem on account of that action: neither of them came near us afterward. When the boats left the shore, the Indians carried away the dead body of Captain Cook and those of the marines, to the rising ground, at the back of the town, where we could plainly see them with our glasses from the ships.

'This most melancholy accident appears to have been altogether unexpected and unforeseen, as well on the part of the natives as ourselves. I never saw sufficient reason to induce me to believe, that there was any thing of design, or a preconcerted plan on their side, or that they purposely sought to quarrel with us: thieving, which gave rise to the whole, they were equally guilty of in our first and second visits. It was the cause of every misunderstanding that happened between us: their petty thefts were generally overlooked, but sometimes slightly punished: the boat, which they at last ventured to take away, was an object of no small magnitude to people in our situation, who could not possibly replace her, and therefore not slightly to be given up. We had no other chance of recovering her, but by getting the person of the king into our possession: on our attempting to do that, the natives became alarmed for his safety, and naturally opposed those whom they deemed his enemies. In the sudden conflict that ensued, we had the unspeakable misfortune of losing our excellent commander, in the manner already related. It is in this light the affair has always appeared to me, as entirely accidental, and not in the least, owing to any previous offence received, or jealousy of our second visit entertained by the natives.

'Pareah seems to have been the principal instrument in bringing about this fatal disaster. We learned afterward, that it was he who had employed some people to steal the boat: the king did not seem to be privy to it, or even apprized of what had happened, till Captain Cook landed.

'It was generally remarked, that, at first, the Indians shewed great resolution in facing our fire-arms; but it was entirely owing to ignorance of their effect. They thought that their thick mats would defend them from a ball as well as from a stone; but being soon convinced of their error, yet still at a loss to account how such execution was done among them, they had recourse to a stratagem, which, though it answered no other purpose, served to shew their ingenuity and quickness of invention. Observing the flashes of the muskets, they naturally concluded, that water would counteract their effect, and therefore, very sagaciously dipped their mats, or armour, in the sea, just as they came on to face our people: but finding this last resource to fail them, they soon dispersed, and left the beach entirely clear. It was an object they never neglected, even at the greatest hazard, to carry off their slain; a custom, probably owing to the barbarity with which they treat the dead body of an enemy, and the trophies they make of his bones.'

In consequence of this barbarity of disposition, the whole remains of Captain Cook could not be recovered. For, though every exertion was made for that purpose; though negotiations and threatenings were alternately employed, little more than the principal part of his bones (and that with great difficulty) could be procured. By the possession of them, our navigators were enabled to perform the last offices to their eminent and unfortunate commander. The bones, having been put into a coffin, and the service being read over them, were committed to the deep, on the 21st, with the usual military honours. What were the feelings of the companies of both the ships, on this occasion, must be left to the world to conceive; for those who were present, know, that it is not in the power of any pen to express them.

A promotion of officers followed the decease of Captain Cook. Captain Clerke having succeeded of course to the command of the expedition, removed on board the Resolution. By him Mr. Gore was appointed captain of the Discovery, and the rest of the lieutenants obtained an addition of rank, in their proper order. Mr. Harvey, a midshipman, who had been in the last as well as the present voyage, was promoted to the vacant lieutenancy.

Not long after Captain Cook's death, an event occurred in Europe, which had a particular relation to the voyage of our navigator, and which was so honourable to himself, and to the great nation from whom it proceeded, that it is no small pleasure to me to be able to lay the transaction somewhat at large before my readers. What I refer to is, the letter which was issued, on the 19th of March, 1779, by Mr. Sartine secretary of the marine department at Paris, and sent to all the commanders of French ships. The rescript was as follows: 'Captain Cook, who sailed from Plymouth in July, 1776, on board the Resolution, in company with the Discovery, Captain Clerke, in order to make some discoveries on the coasts, islands, and seas of Japan and California, being on the point of returning to Europe; and such discoveries being of general utility to all nations, it is the king's pleasure, that Captain Cook shall be treated as a commander of a neutral and allied power, and, that all captains of armed vessels, &c. who may meet that famous navigator, shall make him acquainted with the king's orders on this behalf, but, at the same time, let him know, that on his part he must refrain from hostilities.' By the Marquis of Condorcet we are informed, that this measure originated in the liberal and enlightened mind of that excellent citizen and statesman, M. Turgot. 'When war,' says the marquis, 'was declared between France and England, M. Turgot saw how honourable it would be to the French nation, that the vessel of Captain Cook should be treated with respect at sea. He composed a memorial, in which he proved, that honour, reason, and even interest, dictated this act of respect for humanity; and it was in consequence of this memorial, the author of which was unknown during his life, that an order was given not to treat as an enemy the common benefactor of every European nation.'

Whilst great praise is due to M. Turgot, for having suggested the adoption of a measure which hath contributed so much to the reputation of the French government, it must not be forgotten, that the first thought of such a plan of conduct was probably owing to Dr. Benjamin Franklin. Thus much, at least, is certain, that this eminent philosopher, when ambassador at Paris from the United States of America, preceded the court of France in issuing a similar requisition; a copy Of which cannot fail of being acceptable to the reader.

'To all Captains and Commanders of armed Ships acting by Commission from the Congress of the United States of America, now in war with Great Britain.

'Gentlemen,

'A ship having been fitted out from England before the commencement of this war, to make discoveries of new countries in unknown seas, under the conduct of that most celebrated navigator and discoverer, Captain Cook; an undertaking truly laudable in itself, as the increase of geographical knowledge facilitates the communication between distant nations, in the exchange of useful products and manufactures, and the extension of arts, whereby the common enjoyments of human life are multiplied and augmented, and science of other kinds increased, to the benefit of mankind in general--This is therefore most earnestly to recommend to every one of you, that in case the said ship, which is now expected to be soon in the European seas on her return, should happen to fall into your hands, you would not consider her as an enemy, nor suffer any plunder to be made of the effects contained in her, nor obstruct her immediate return to England, by detaining her, or sending her into any other part of Europe, or to America; but that you would treat the said Captain Cook and his people with all civility and kindness, affording them, as common friends to mankind, all the assistance in your power, which they may happen to stand in need of. In so doing you will not only gratify the generosity of your own dispositions, but there is no doubt of your obtaining the approbation of the Congress, and your other American owners.

'I have the honour to be, Gentlemen,

'Your most obedient, humble servant,

B. FRANKLIN,

'Minister Plenipotentiary from the Congress of the United States, at the Court of France.

At Passy, near Paris, the 10th day of March, 1779.'

It is observable that, as Dr. Franklin acted on his own authority, he could only _earnestly recommend_ to the commanders of American armed vessels not to consider Captain Cook as an enemy; and it is somewhat remarkable, that he mentions no more than one ship; Captain Clerke not being noticed in the requisition. In the confidence which the doctor expressed, with respect to the approbation of Congress, he happened to be mistaken. As the members of that assembly, at least with regard to the greater part of them, were, not possessed of minds equally enlightened with that of their ambassador, he was not supported by his masters in this noble act of humanity, of love to science, and of liberal policy. The orders he had given were instantly reversed; and it was directed by Congress, that especial care should be taken to seize Captain Cook, if an opportunity of doing it occurred. All this preceeded from a false notion, that it would be injurious to the United States for the English to obtain a knowledge of the opposite coast of America.

The conduct of the court of Spain was regulated by similar principles of jealousy. It was apprehended by that court, that there was reason to be cautious of granting, too easily, an indulgence to Captain Cook; since it was not certain what mischiefs might ensue to the Spaniards from a northern passage to their American dominions. M. de Belluga, a Spanish gentleman and officer, of a liberal and philosophical turn of mind, and who was a member of the Royal Society of London, endeavoured to prevail upon the Count of Florida Blanca, and M. d'Almodaver, to grant an order of protection to the Resolution and Discovery; and he flattered himself, that the ministers of the King of Spain would be prevailed upon to prefer the cause of science to the partial views of interest: but the Spanish government was not capable of rising to so enlarged and magnanimous a plan of policy. To the French nation alone, therefore, was reserved the honour of setting an example of wisdom and humanity, which, I trust, will not hereafter be so uncommon to the history of mankind.

The progress of the voyage, after the decease of Captain Cook, doth not fall within the design of the present narrative.[16]

[Footnote 16: The particulars of the voyage, after the death of
Captain Cook, of which it did not fall under Dr. Kippis's plan to
give a narrative, will be found in the Appendix.]

RELATED LINKS

BIOGRAPHY OF CAPTAIN JAMES COOK

PREFACE

CHAP. I. Account of Captain Cook previous to his first Voyage round the World

CHAP. II. Narrative of Captain Cook's first Voyage round the World in the years 1768, 1769, 1770, and 1771

CHAP. III. Account of Captain Cook during the Period between his first and second Voyage

CHAP. IV. Narrative of Captain Cook's second Voyage round the World in the years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775

CHAP. V. Account of Captain Cook during the Period between his second and third Voyage

CHAP. VI. Narrative of Captain Cook's third Voyage in the years 1776, 1777, 1778, and 1779, to the Period of his Death

CHAP. VII. Character of Captain Cook.--Effects of his Voyages.--Testimonies of Applause.--Commemorations of his Services.--Regard paid to his Family.--Conclusion

APPENDIX









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